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PD/A CRSP Research Reports 91-36 to 92- 40

PD/A CRSP Research Reports 91-36 to 92- 40

Fertilized non-fed pond systems

Raul H. Piedrahita and Philip Giovannini, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA

15 October 1991, CRSP Research Reports 91-36

Abstract Non-fed ponds are aquaculture production systems that do not depend on the addition of fish food, but derive their productivity from organic and inorganic fertilizers. Design and management goals for non-fed ponds are directed to the manipulation of the pond ecosystem to achieve predictable fish yields. This paper discusses new developments in the engineering of non-fed pond production systems. Included are quantitative techniques for determining optimum pond characteristics based on insolation at the production site; use of efficiency models to evaluate pond characteristics and management inputs over time; topics related to fertilization and other water quality management strategies; and a discussion of the significance of pond stratification on pond management.

This abstract was reprinted from the original, which was published in Aquaculture Systems Engineering. Proceedings of the World Aquaculture Society and the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1991, World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. p.1-14.


Managing fertilizers for fish yield in tropical ponds in Asia

C.D. McNabb, T.R. Batterson, B.J. Premo, C.F. Knud-Hansen Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, U.S.A.

H.M. Eidman Faculty of Fisheries, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia

C.K Lin Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

K Jaiyen, J.E. Hanson, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

2 December 1991, CRSP Research Reports 91-37

Abstract The purpose of this work was to develop a strategy for fertilizer application that improved predictions of yields. Pond productivity was analyzed relative to supplies of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and dissolved reactive phosphorus. Phosphorus did not limit pond production in any of the treatments used. Algal productivity and yield of male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Trewavas) were limited by DIC when low alkalinity ponds were fertilized with chicken manure or triple superphosphate and urea. In high alkalinity ponds with adequate DIC, nitrogen limited production when chicken manure was added. This was correctedwith additions of urea. Fertilizer costs per kg of yield were US$0.07 for the chicken manure treatment and US$0.06 for the chicken manure + urea treatment.

The Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP gratefully acknowledges the Asian Fisheries Society for allowing this paper to be reproduced in Research Reports. This paper originally appeared in The Second Asian Fisheries Forum ,R. Hirano and I. Hanyu (eds) 1989, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, pp. 169-172.


Effecto de diferentes tazas de aplicacion de gallinaza en la produccion de tilapia (The effect of different application rates of chicken litter on tilapia production)

Bartholomew W. Green, International Center for Aquaculture, Auburn University, Alabama, U.S.A.

Hermes R. Alvarenga, Estación Acuícola Experimental "El Carao," Secretaría de Recursos Naturales, Comayagua, Honduras

2 December 1991, CRSP Research Reports 91-38

Abstract Production of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1 fish/m2) in 0.1 ha earthen ponds fertilized with different rates of chicken litter was studied using a completely randomized design at the "El Carao" Aquaculture Experiment Station, Comayagua, Honduras. The purpose of this study was to quantify tilapia production at different rates of chicken litter application.

Chicken litter was applied at the following rates: 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kg TS/ha/wk. After 150 days the net total production was 895, 1321, 1612, and 1950 kg/ha where 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kg TS/ha/wk, respectively, were applied. Net total production was regressed against rate of chicken litter application yielding the equation: [[Ydieresis]] = 933.5 + 1.09X, r = 0.87. There was a positive relationship (P<0.05) between rate of chicken litter application and net total fish production.

This abstract was reprinted from the original, which was published in Spanish in Revista Latinoamericana de Acuicultura 40:31-34.


Production and economic aspects of tilapia cultivation in ponds fertilized with chicken litter

Hermes R. Alvarenga, Estación Acuícola Experimental "El Carao," Secretaría de Recursos Naturales, Comayagua, Honduras

Bartholomew W. Green, International Center for Aquaculture, Auburn University, Alabama, U.S.A.

2 December 1991, CRSP Research Reports 91-39

Abstract The production of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (10,000 fish/ha) in 0.1 ha earthen ponds fertilized with layer chicken litter was studied during the rainy and dry seasons at the "El Carao" Aquaculture Experiment Station, Comayagua, Honduras.Four rates of chicken litter application were tested using a completely randomized design; weekly applications of chicken litter, on a dry matter basis, were: 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kg/ha. After a culture period of 150 days, yields during the rainy season were, respectively, 1159, 1589, 1856, and 2229 kg/ha, while during the dry season the respective yields were 1116, 1399, 1884, and 2295 kg/ha. No seasonal differences in production (P>0.05) were detected at any fertilizer level. Fish production increased significantly (P<0.05) with an increase in manure input, and was described by the equation Y = 832.693 + 2.813x - 0.0014x2, r2 = 0.893. Income from the sale of fish produced ranged from L. 3674/ha (2 Lempiras = $ 1US) to L. 7256/ha and total production costs ranged from L. 2364/ha to L. 3856/ha for the low and high fertilization rates, respectively. The cost per kilogram of fish produced was L. 2.13 at the 125 kg/ha/wk rate of chicken litter application and L. 1.75 where chicken litter was applied at 1000 kg/ha/wk. The lowest production cost (L. 1.68/kg) was obtained at the 500 kg/ha/wk fertilization rate.

This abstract was reprinted from the original, which was published in Spanish in Revista Latinoamericana de Acuicultura 40:35-39.


Production of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and ecosystem dynamics in manured ponds of three depths

J.P. Szyper, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Kaneohe, Hawaii, USA

K.D. Hopkins, College of Agriculture, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii,USA

C. Kwei Lin, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand and University of Michigan, Michigan, USA

15 March 1992, CRSP Research Reports 92-40

Abstract During three 5-month experiments in Thailand, earthen ponds of approximately 370 m2 surface area were stocked with male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), fingerlings of 4 to 12 g weight at densities of 0.5 to 1.6 fish/m2. Stocking and fertilization (with chicken manure, urea, and TSP) in triplicate depth treatments of 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 m were proportional to pond volume in two experiments (wet and dry seasons) and to pond area in the other (dry seasons).

Depth showed no direct effect on fish yields of 0.9 to 6.3 t/ha/year, on survival rates of 66 to 98%, or on final individual weights of 96 to 313 g/fish. Greater yields were obtained from deeper ponds when they received proportionally greater stocking and fertilizer inputs. Inputs per unit area were the most important factor accounting for yield variation.

Temperature, dissoved N and P, and suspended solids showed little or no relation to depth treatments. Time-averaged chlorophyll concentrations and photosynthetic production of dissolved oxygen were greater in treatments receiving greater inputs of nitrogen per unit pond volume.

Deeper ponds produced the greatest areal yields of fish, when fertilized in proportion to their volumes. Shallow ponds produced fish and dissolved oxygen at least as efficiently per unit input as did deep ponds, which is consistent with models of photosynthesis-depth relations.

This abstract was reprinted from the original, which was published in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 1991, 22: 385-396.




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