The effects of water depth and circulation on the water quality and production of Penaeus monodon in earthen ponds
Kent E. Carpenter, Arlo W. Fast, Valeriano L. Corre, James W. Woessner, Rosy L. Janeo Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Leganes, Iloilo City 5920, Philippines
8 February 1988, CRSP Research Report 88-6
Abstract Successful high intensive shrimp grow-out schemes typically use deep ponds (1-2 m) together with aeration/circulation. Little is known, however, why deep ponds are more productive than shallow ponds. It is important to understand the water quality and production dynamics of ponds of different depths to develop appropriate shrimp culture methods. The effects of water depth and circulation on the production of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in 0.1-ha earthen ponds were tested in a 3 x 2 factorial experiment, with three depth treatments (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m) and two circulation regimes (daytime circulation and uncirculated). Stocking density was 4 postlarvae/m2. Production and survival were determined after five- and four-month culture periods during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, in 1985. Water circulation positively influenced primary productivity, decreased the surface temperature, and reduced stratification of temperature and dissolved oxygen. Water depth significantly affected almost all water quality parameters, the deeper ponds producing shrimp of significantly larger size. However, there were no treatment effects on shrimp production due to an inverse relation of survival and average size. It can be said that water depth and circulation profoundly affect the water quality of brackishwater shrimp ponds, but that the effects on shrimp production are not apparent at the stocking density used in this experiment. Further tests at higher stocking densities are necessary to establish the causal relationships of water depth, survival and average size of shrimp.
This paper originally appeared in the Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum J.L. Maclean, L.B. Dizon,and L.V. Hosillos (eds.) Asian Fisheries Society, Manila Philippines, 1986, pp. 21-24.
Roman C. Sanares, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Leganes, Iloilo City 5920, Philippines
Steven A. Katase, Arlo W. Fast, Kent E. Carpenter,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA
8 February 1988, CRSP Research Report 88-7
Abstract Water aeration and circulation using paddlewheel aerator and motor-driven propeller blades, respectively, were maintained under four different diurnal regimes to test their effects on water quality and production of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp with an average weight of 0.03 gm were stocked at a density of 33 individuals/m2in four 0.05-ha earthen ponds. The four treatments were: (1) continuous aeration (2) nighttime aeration (3) nighttime aeration and daytime circulation and (4) no aeration or circulation. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), dissolved oxygen, temperature and shrimp growth were monitored during a culture period of 10 weeks. Ammonia nitrogen concentration did not differ significantly under the various aeration and circulation treatments. Dissolved oxygen and temperature stratification was least evident in treatments 1 and 3. Nighttime dissolved oxygen levels were significantly lower in treatments 1 and 4. The average size of shrimp at harvest was significantly higher in treatments 1 and 3. These findings taken together indicated that there was no clear benefit from continuous aeration. Rather, a combination of nighttime aeration, when needed, and daytime circulation could result in the greatest water quality benefits with the least energy consumption.
This paper originally appeared in The First Asian Fisheries Forum, In: J.L. Maclean, L.B. Dizon and L.V. Hosillos (eds.), Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, p. 83-86.
Ted R. Batterson, Cal D. McNabb, and Chris F. Knud-Hansen Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA
H. Muhammed Eidman and Komar Sumatadinata, Faculty of Fisheries, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Pajajaran Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
18 April 1988, CRSP Research Report 88-8
Abstract Results of experiment in Cycle III of the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP are reported here. Two experiments were conducted: one lasted 156 days and the other lasted 149 days. During both experiments four levels of dried chicken manure (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 g/m2/wk) were added to 0.02 ha ponds. There were three ponds in each treatment. Results of the two experiments were similar. Yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at final harvest increased linearly with increasing fertilizer application from about 900 kg/ha in the lowest treatment to approximately 2300 kg/ha in the highest. Increased algal productivity and an apparent increase in detritus accompanied increasing fish yield. Analyses of nitrogen and phosphorus suggested that higher algal productivity and fish yields could be obtained by improving the fertilizer regime so that N and P are available in these ponds in proportions required by pond mircroflora.
This abstract was excerpted from the original article which was published as CRSP Research Report 88-8 by the Program Management Office of the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/A CRSP)
D.R. Teichert-Coddington, N. Stone, and R.P. Phelps, Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University, AL 36849, USA
14 December 1988, CRSP Research Report 88-9
Abstract During 1985, rainfall, evaporation and seepage were measured in 12 experimental fish culture ponds at the Gualaca Freshwater Aquaculture Research Station, Gualaca, Panama, to provide baseline pond hydrology data for the area and a water budget for the station. Mean monthly rainfall ranged from 0 to 27 mm day-1, while pond evaporation ranged from 1.4 to 8.4 mm day-1. An equation was developed to predict pond evaporation from solar radiation measured by photometry. Among the 12 ponds, mean seepage ranged from 19 to 58 mm day-1 and averaged 31. Seepage accounted for 87% of water lost from the ponds. A regression equation was developed to predict the quantity of water gained by runoff into ponds during rainfall. Monthly water balances (mm day-1) for the station ranged from -39 to 14 and averaged -13. Water deficits occurred during 9 of 12 months. The annual water deficit could be reduced to zero should seepage be reduced by 66%. Particular attention needs to be given to pond construction on kaolinitic soils, which although high in clay, may be very porous.
This paper was published in Aquacultural Engineering (1988) 7:309-320.
Elevation of sex steroids and inhibition of UDP-glucuronyltransferase are out of phase during gonadal maturation in the common carp
Francis D. Sikoki, Richard A. Tubb, and Lawrence R. Curtis Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Nash Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331 USA
14 December 1988, CRSP Research Report 88-10
Abstract Plasma sex steroid concentrations, onset of gonadal maturation, and hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activities were followed under natural temperature and photoperiod in outdoor tanks, and under controlled laboratory temperature and photoperiod regimens in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Decreased activity of UDPGT was out of phase with elevations in plasma testosterone and 17ß-estradiol during gonadal maturation. Injection of pituitary extract induced final gonadal maturation and transient elevations (within 24 hrs) of both plasma sex steroid a concentrations and UDPGT activities. There were no simple relationships between plasma sex steroid concentrations and activity of hepatic microsomal UDPGT in common carp.
This paper was published in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 1988, 92C:267-272.
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