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VII. Program Management and Technical Guidance

VII. Program Management and Technical Guidance

The CRSP is organized to facilitate multidisciplinary research and collaboration among institutions and countries around the world. This structure is based on the premise that mutually beneficial development strategies have the best chance of being sustainable over time. Primary management responsibilities for the PD/A CRSP are vested in OSU as the Management Entity (ME). The ME is the institution with the legal status of a juridical body that administers the grant from USAID and manages the total research program. Accountability for the CRSP rests with the ME. Therefore, the ME is the decision-making body on fiscal and programmatic matters and is advised in this function by a Board of Directors (BOD), a Technical Committee (TC), and an External Evaluation Panel (EEP). The ME appoints a Program Director to administer the CRSP. The Program Director serves as an ex-officio member of the BOD and TC and serves on the steering committee of the CRSP Council.

ME functions at OSU are carried out through a Program Management Office (PMO), which is the operational component of the ME. The PMO is the link between USAID and the CRSP projects, which are subcontracted to Auburn University, the University of California at Davis, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, University of Hawaii, and the University of Michigan.

The PMO, currently housed at the Office of International Research and Development (OIRD) at OSU, is an integral component of, and derives benefits from, the international programs at OSU. The CRSP presently is also linked to the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and the Department of Bioresource Engineering through faculty appointments and professional and academic interests. OIRD provides accounting, purchasing, and travel support. The CRSP reports directly to the Vice Provost for Research and International Programs through the Director of the OIRD.

During this reporting period, members of the PMO included:

Hillary Egna, Director
Brigitte Goetze, Deputy Director and Egypt Coordinator
Marion McNamara, Assistant Director
Naomi Weidner, Administrative Assistant (through 6/95)
Faye Trupka, Temporary Clerical Support

Through BIFAD, the ME has responsibility to:

* Receive funds committed by USAID to the CRSP and assume accountability for their use;
* Provide funds to participating institutions and ensure compliance with the terms of the grant;
* Hold participating institutions responsible for programs and accountable for use of funds;
* Manage the program and control and account for funds, including matching resources contributed by participating institutions;
* Implement the program;
* Coordinate and lead the development of annual budgets and work plans;
* Spearhead program development efforts;
* Facilitate internal and external communications;
* Maintain contact with overseas and domestic participants;
* Represent the CRSP in dealings with USAID/Washington and USAID Missions;
* Produce and distribute CRSP publications; and
* Provide a focal point for members of the TC, BOD, EEP, and USAID to interact.

The last year was a busy and productive one for the PMO. In the reporting period, this group:

* Coordinated, contributed to, and edited the continuation proposal for the PD/A CRSP;
* Assisted in executing a survey on research needs in tilapia reproduction;
* Conducted an analysis of constraints to aquaculture development worldwide;
* Negotiated with USAID for a one-year extension of the CRSP through 31 April 1996;
* Prepared CRSP budgets and subcontract modifications for extending funding and performance periods;
* Coordinated administrative and contractual details for collaborative research projects in Thailand, the Philippines, and Honduras;
* Visited Kenya to investigate a potential new African site for the CRSP and continued coordination of new site selection process;
* Participated in the planning of the InterCRSP activity in West Africa;
* Initiated development of a home page on the World Wide Web;
* Processed proposals for New Research Initiatives;
* Participated in an internal audit of the CRSP conducted by the Program Associate for Financial Management in the OIRD at OSU;
* Conducted a comprehensive review of U.S. universities' cost-sharing commitments for the CRSP;
* Selected a new EEP member;
* Reviewed the Tropical Research and Development Report, An Evaluation of the USAID and Universities Collaborative Research Support Programs ;
* Organized the thirteenth annual CRSP meeting in San Diego, California, from 29-31 January 1995;
* Wrote subcontracts for the transition year;
* Participated in the Annual Meeting, including BOD and TC meetings;
* Processed travel clearances for all CRSP personnel and approvals for purchases of restricted goods for country projects;
* Published research results in technical report series;
* Prepared, published, and distributed detailed quarterly reports summarizing technical and administrative progress;
* Maintained the CRSP mailing list, which reaches approximately 550 people in 42 countries;
* Maintained the CRSP directory, which lists participants' mailing addresses, telephone and fax numbers and email addresses;
* Maintained management information systems to track projects;
* Coordinated, with Claude Boyd of Auburn University, Dynamics of Pond Aquaculture, an updated version of Principles and Practices ;
* Initiated the review process for the submitted chapters of the new book, Dynamics of Pond Aquaculture;
* Developed, with TC co-chairs, a process and schedule for Work Plan reviews for the 1996-1998 Work Plan;
* Commissioned a review of the Central Data Base;
* Responded to USAID requests to improve openness and collaboration with other institutions;
* Negotiated an extension of the Egypt Project;
* Processed subcontracts for Egypt Project extension;
* Coordinated Work Plan development for the Egypt Project extension;
* Wrote and published final report of Egypt Project;
* Closed out Egypt Project; and
* Participated as an observer in "International Centers Week."

The PD/A CRSP maintains technical linkages with the Tropsoils and the SANREM CRSPs. Maintaining programmatic linkages with all the CRSPs increases the visibility of the PD/A CRSP and of aquaculture in general. The cost of participation in CRSP Council activities is disproportionately high for the
PD/A CRSP, which is funded at a much lower level than other CRSPs and is thus more financially strained by participation. The PMO participated in CRSP Council Conference calls on:

15 September 1994
13 October 1994
3 November 1994
9 February 1995
8 June 1995

In addition to serving on the CRSP Council, the Director and the TC Co-Chair attended a workshop on "Developing Strategy Objectives for the Office of Agriculture and Food Security." The workshop was sponsored by USAID to develop global strategies for each sector and focus each program on USAID's strategic objectives. The Director and Deputy Director presented a poster at the USAID/AFR conference on "Income, Employment, and Food Security for the 21st Century Africa" in Baltimore, Maryland.

Advisory Groups

Three advisory groups-the Board of Director, Technical Committee, and External Evaluation Panel-support the management of the CRSP. These groups work closely with the PMO to guide the CRSP through policy decisions, budget allocations, research strategy, review, and evaluation.

Board of Directors

The Board consists of representatives from participating institutions and operates under a defined charter to deal with policy issues, to review and approve plans and proposed budgets, to assess progress, and to advise the PMO on these and other matters. The Project Officer from USAID and the CRSP Director serve as ex-officio Board members. All Board members function in the objective interest of the CRSP regardless of their institutional affiliation. The Board elects a chair by simple majority vote; at present, the Chair serves for one two-year term.

During the existence of CIFAD, Board members represented each U.S. CRSP institution (Auburn University, the University of California, and CIFAD). With the dissolution of CIFAD, Board members represent three of the CRSP participating institutions.

Current Board members are:

* Dr. R. Oneal Smitherman, Chair, Auburn University
* Dr. Robert Fridley, University of California at Davis
* Dr. Philip Helfrich, University of Hawaii
(former CIFAD representative through 3/95).

Board operations have been modified in response to recommendations made by three recent reviews and the dissolution of CIFAD. As a result, the CRSP Board will more closely follow the BIFAD Guidelines. In the future, the Board will consist of a minimum of four members. The ME will have a permanent member on the Board, but that member will not serve as chair. The three other Board members will come from participating U.S. CRSP institutions on a rotating basis from the pool of institutional representatives. Outside members may be appointed to the Board based on availability of funding and need. Board members are selected by their participating institutions from their higher administrative management level, based on their responsibilities and relevant experience. The term length on the Board will be three years, typically with service as chair in the third year. Active Board members receive compensation related only to invitational travel. Such travel will be financed jointly by the CRSP and the Board member's institution.

The Board meets at least twice annually, either in person or by conference call or other means of electronic communication. The PMO prepares minutes of all meetings which are distributed to the members of the Board, TC and EEP, and to Institutional Representatives and the USAID Project Officer. The Board's advice and guidance is carefully considered by the ME. Departures from the Board's recommendations by the ME are justified, recorded, and reported in writing by the PMO.

Responsibilities of the Board are to:

* Review program budgets and allocate funds to research projects and the PMO;
* Recommend budget allocations to the ME;
* Evaluate the administrative and technical accomplishments of overseas research projects and U.S.-based research activities; and
* Advise the ME on policy guidelines.

The BOD convened once during this reporting period in an extended meeting during the Annual Meeting (29-31 January 1995) in San Diego, California. Informal discussions are held regularly with the Board, and approvals for some decisions are made through correspondence.

In this reporting period the Board:

* Approved management and research budgets;
* Assisted in developing and approved the annual meeting agenda;
* Provided input on project monitoring by the Program Director and the BOD;
* Directed the TC and PMO in developing the continuation proposal;
* Participated in the Thirteenth Annual Program Meeting in January 1995;
* Participated in the review of proposals for the continuation plan; and
* Participated in the selection of a new EEP member.

Technical Committee

Technical guidance for the program is provided by the TC, whose purpose is to monitor the technical research of the PD/A CRSP, propose modifications in the program, and recommend allocations of funds for research activities.
The PD/A CRSP Technical Committee:

* Develops the biennial work plans and budgets for the research projects;
* Reviews and recommends to the PMO overall research plans, biennial work plans, and budgets for the research projects;
* Assists in the development of annual and intensive five-year reviews;
* Assists in the development and review of the Annual Report;
* Makes necessary recommendations on program progress and problems to the PMO, including, but not limited to, an analysis of the recommendations of the EEP; and
* Gives necessary input to the CRSP Council through Council representation by the CRSP Director or TC Co-Chairs.

At present, the organization of the TC is based on institutional representation. The TC includes voting and non-voting members. Voting members are Principal Investigators from each funded project at U.S. institutions based on the issuance of subcontracts and from each Host Country institution with an MOU/MOA (Memorandum of Agreement). Institutions holding a vote on the TC are listed in Table 1 by project.
The membership of the TC, as of August 1995, is listed in Table 2 in alphabetic order, with institutional affiliations, subcommittee assignments, and voting status also indicated. Other U.S. and Host Country scientists participate in the TC meetings as non-voting members. Members volunteer to serve on one of four subcommittees: budget, materials and methods, work plan, and technical progress. In the future, the budget and work plan subcommittee will be merged.

In order to better perform its functions, the TC will be substantially restructured under the new grant. This new organization will be centered around three strategic research areas: production optimization, environmental effects, and social and economic aspects. TC members will be selected based on their expertise in these areas and once selected will represent their respective disciplines. Host country members will be included in the selection process. To ensure diversity there will be at least three members representing each of the three strategic research areas. TC members will serve for three-year terms. Each member, with the exception of the Chair or Co-Chairs, will be an active member of one of three standing subcommittees: Work Plan and Budget (newly merged under the new grant), Technical Progress, or Materials and Methods.

The TC will create bylaws, subject to the PMO's approval, to select members based on expertise and institutional diversity. The PMO may appoint, after consultation with the BOD, additional members to the TC to provide expertise in unrepresented areas. The USAID Project Officer, CRSP Director, and Deputy Director will continue to serve as ex-officio members to the TC. Currently, at-large members are appointed by the BOD. Dr. Ted Batterson continued to serve as the at-large TC member during this reporting period.

External Evaluation Panel

The primary function of the EEP is to provide counsel to USAID and critical feedback to the ME, BOD, and TC. It does so by evaluating the status, funding, progress, plans, and prospects of the research program. The EEP also periodically evaluates the accomplishments of CRSP research activities and of the program as a whole. This committee of external aquaculture specialists is drawn from the international aquatic resources community to evaluate the accomplishments of the individual research projects and the overall program. The members are selected so that collectively they will cover the substance of the CRSP, including socioeconomic factors that can influence research and adoption of technology generated from research. The EEP is specifically charged by BIFAD to help maintain programmatic focus and effective scientific balance of research. Its chief objectives are to:

* Identify inadequate performances;
* Identify activities that are irrelevant or marginal to CRSP objectives;
* Consider effective balance between research and training for the development of institutional research capability;
* Assess the balance of domestic versus overseas research in terms of effectiveness of solving constraints in developing countries;
* Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the entire CRSP operation by comparing the actual cost of business to alternatives that may be less costly and more efficient and effective;
* Examine how research results are disseminated, evaluate the effectiveness of use of the results, and provide a measure of the appropriateness of the research; and
* Report findings and recommendations annually to the ME, BOD, USAID, and JCARD/BIFAD.

The PMO recommends EEP candidates to USAID, considering the advice of the Board, TC, participating institutions and other sources. After USAID receives concurrence from BIFAD, the PMO appoints the new EEP member. Currently, the EEP consists of three scientists who represent the major disciplines of the CRSP. During this reporting period, Dr. Gary Jensen, USDA, joined Richard Neal, NMFS, and Roger Pullin, ICLARM on the EEP. To enhance future reviews, four scientists will comprise the EEP. New members will be rotated in as members resign or are replaced.

One member of the EEP attends each annual meeting to evaluate the progress of the CRSP on a year-to-year basis. The PMO provides the EEP with copies of significant CRSP documents in order to keep the panel advised of CRSP activities. The EEP reviews the CRSP annually and provides an in-depth review every five years. During the year of the five-year review at least two EEP members visit each of the overseas research sites. Also during that year, the EEP may visit the PMO and attend significant CRSP meetings. The EEP interact with the TC and Board during the quinquennial review year, and all EEP members attend the annual meeting for that year. At the conclusion of the review, the EEP submits its report to the PMO and Board, with copies to BIFAD through USAID's Project Director for use in its review. To promote objectivity, membership on the EEP is limited to one three-year term or participation in one quinquennial review.

The last comprehensive review of the CRSP by the EEP took place in 1992-93. The final report, which includes program responses to the findings and recommendations of the EEP, is available from the PMO. The PMO makes full use of the EEP and considers its recommendations. Where there is disagreement with an EEP recommendation, a record is made of the reason for the disagreement. Any decision contrary to the EEP recommendations is justified in writing and reported by the PMO to USAID.

The EEP serves without compensation but receives reimbursement for all travel expenses during the quinquennial review. Other travel may be jointly financed. Members may receive honoraria during the year of the quinquennial review.

CRSP Administrative and Technical Reports

CRSP publications are an important part of the CRSPs technology dissemination. A broad domestic and international audience of approximately 550 people in 42 countries receive CRSP technical and program reports. Technical reports are issued through two series, Collaborative Research Data Reports and CRSP Research Reports.

Collaborative Research Data Reports contains the results and data from the Global Experiment, along with interpretations of site-specific results. The first volume of Collaborative Research Data Reports contains descriptions of sites and experimental protocols for the Global Experiment. Subsequent volumes focus on each research site separately by experimental cycle. Data from cycles I through III are available in book format from the PMO; data from later cycles can be accessed through the CRSP Central Data Base. The goal of CRSP Research Reports is to publish all other research produced by CRSP activities.

Other reports published by the CRSP PMO include Annual Administrative Reports, Quarterly Reports, Program Grant Proposals, Work Plans, and CRSP Directories. Past publications include a ten year summary of activities in Honduras, compiled by the Auburn/Honduras team of researchers, the Handbook of Analytical Methods, compiled by the Materials and Methods Committee of the TC and the PONDCLASS Users' Guide, which was developed by the OSU/DAST researchers.

Principles and Practices of Pond Aquaculture was one of the founding documents of this CRSP. At the time of its production, this state-of-the-art volume filled a neglected niche in the field of aquaculture. Since its publication in 1983, it has been one of the most requested of CRSP publications. As advances are made in pond aquaculture by the CRSP and others, this valuable resource must be updated. A new volume that approaches aquaculture production as part of the larger agroecosystem is in progress, Dynamics of Pond Aquaculture. CRSP researchers are collaborating in writing the 16 chapters that comprise the book to be published by Lewis Publications in 1996.

In addition to CRSP-produced publications, the PMO contributes to USAID's program reviews, publications and presentations. Administrative and technical reports prepared and disseminated during this reporting period are briefly described in the next section and may be ordered from the PMO. Technical reports that were not processed by the PMO are listed in the Appendix.

Administrative Reports

Annual Reports
Egna, H., M. McNamara and N. Weidner. 1995. Twelfth Annual Administrative Report, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 95 pp.

Egna, H., J. Bowman, B. Goetze, and N. Weidner, eds. 1995. Twelfth Annual Technical Report 1993, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 209 pp.

Quarterly Reports
Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. January 1995. Quarterly Report. October-December 1994. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 15 pp.

Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. April 1995. Quarterly Report. January-March 1995. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 6 pp.

Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. July 1995. Quarterly Report. April-June 1995. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 10 pp.

Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. October 1995. Quarterly Report. July-September 1995. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 15 pp.

The CRSP directory contains an organizational chart and the addresses of current CRSP members from USAID, BIFAD, USAID Missions, the CRSP Council, the EEP, the TC, the ME, the Board, and the Collaborative Research Projects. The chart is updated annually or semi-annually, as needed.

CRSP Directory. June 1995. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Aquanews, The Newsletter of the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program, serves to inform CRSP participants and others of program activities that are not of a technical nature. It contains information on project activities, meetings, travel of CRSP participants, and site visits. Aquanews is generally published quarterly; however, reductions in personnel over the past year resulted in a reduction in the number of issues published. In this reporting period the PMO published:

Aquanews, Fall 1995, Volume 10, Number 1. McNamara, M., ed. ISSN 1062-4996. PD/A CRSP Program Management Office, Office of International Research & Development, Snell Hall 400, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Technical Reports

CRSP Research Reports/Notices Of Publications
Bowman, J.R. and J.E. Lannan. 1995. Evaluation of soil pH-percent base saturation relationships for use in estimating the lime requirements of earthen aquaculture ponds. CRSP Research Report 95-86, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, Vol. 26, No. 2, June 1995, pp. 172-182.]

Culberson, S.D. and R.H. Piedrahita. 1993. Model for predicting dissolved oxygen levels in stratified ponds using reduced data inputs. CRSP Research Report 95-80, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in J.K Wang (ed.), Techniques for Modern Aquaculture, Proceedings of an Aquacultural Engineering Conference, pp. 543-552. 1993.]

Culberson, S.D. and R.H. Piedrahita. 1992. Modification of stratified temperature model to accommodate reduced data inputs: identifying critical requirements. CRSP Research Report 95-81, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in American Society of Agricultural Engineers Paper No. AQUA-92-102, 37 pp. 1992.]

Egna, H.S. 1995. Psychological distress as a factor in environmental impact assessment: some methods and ideas for quantifying this intangible intangible. CRSP Research Report 95-85, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Environmental Impact Assessment Review12:115-137, 1995.]

Giovannini, P. and R.H. Piedrahita. 1994. Modeling photosynthetic production optimization for aquaculture ponds. CRSP Research Report 95-79, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquacultural Engineering13:83-100, 1994.]

Szyper, J.P., C.K. Lin, D. Little, S. Setboonsarng, A. Yakupitiyage, P. Edwards, and H. Demaine. 1995. Techniques for efficient and sustainable mass production of tilapia in Thailand. CRSP Research Report 95-84, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Proceedings, Sustainable Aquaculture 95. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology. pp. 349-356]

Teichert-Coddington, D. 1993. Development of production technologies for semi-intensive fish farming during the past decade in Central America. CRSP Research Report 95-82, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally presented at Actas del Simposia Investigación Acuicola en Centroamerica, 25-29 October 1993, Heredia, Costa Rica.]

Teichert-Coddington, D. 1988. Effects of protein diet and sowing density on the production of Penaeus vannamei in land tanks. CRSP Research Report 95-83, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Rev. Lat. Acui., No. 35-29-44 Marz. 1988.]