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Program Management and Technical Guidance


VI. Program Management and Technical Guidance

The CRSP is organized to facilitate collaboration. Believing that mutually beneficial development strategies have the best chance of being sustainable over time, the CRSP's organizational structure facilitates collaboration among research, institutions, and countries. The Management Entity, located at Oregon State University, administers the program. The Management Entity subcontracts with Auburn University, the University of California at Davis, and the Consortium for International Fisheries and Aquaculture Development (CIFAD), a five-member consortium of universities. Members of CIFAD include: Michigan State University, Oregon State University, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, University of Hawaii, and The University of Michigan. The University of Oklahoma continued its association with the CRSP as part of the Egypt project. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is executed between the host country institution and the lead university for each project (e.g., an MOU is executed between the Asian Institute of Technology and The University of Michigan). An exception to this is the Egypt project where the Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research of the Agricultural Research Center at Abbassa holds an MOU directly with the CRSP Management Entity.

This organizational structure gives the CRSP flexibility and the depth of expertise to respond effectively to new opportunities and challenges. CRSP efforts in Honduras have been successful in institutionalizing aquaculture research. Host country researchers at the freshwater site maintain day-to-day station operations. At the brackish water site, private sector collaborators help to fund research activities and take part in experiments. Linkages with these organizations, the result of ten years of research and training in Honduras, are further evidence of the efficacy of the CRSP in attracting local support for program activities. The Honduras project collaborates informally with experts from non-CRSP universities to evaluate water flux and waste assimilative capacity in estuaries.

The CRSP drew on its multi-disciplinary collaborative network to pioneer and refine a global project in socioeconomics. A study entitled "Socioeconomic Dimensions of Aquaculture Development: A Comparative Assessment of Financial Returns, Adoption Barriers, and Impacts of Tilapia Production Regimes," began in June. The study will identify the level and type of technology available to tilapia farmers in Honduras, Thailand, and the Philippines. Furthermore, the study will identify the role that CRSP technology has played in the evolution of tilapia production practices in these countries. The relationship of CRSP technologies to the larger research and technology development systems will be articulated, and the economic context that shapes farmers' decisions concerning technology adoption will be profiled. The implications for research management, development policy, and farm-level decision-making about tilapia technology will be useful for planners, researchers, and farmers. Field work on this project has been completed, and a final report will be forthcoming in the next reporting period.

As a result of exhaustive reviews conducted by the PD/A CRSP External Evaluation Panel and by the consulting firm Tropical Research & Development, the PD/A CRSP has been invited to submit a proposal for continuation of the CRSP from 1995 to 2000. The CRSP has used the strength of its collaborative network to plan for the next five years. The process began at the 1993 Annual Meeting, as areas of interest were identified and an RFP was issued. Proposals from new and continuing institutions were submitted for consideration. At the 1994 Annual Meeting, the process continued, as the Technical Committee identified specific research themes and charged the Technical Committee co-chairs Bryan Duncan and Kevin Hopkins to work with Program Director Hillary Egna to coordinate and write the Continuation Plan.

Management Entity

Oregon State University is the Management Entity (ME) for the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP and is the primary grantee of USAID. The Program Management Office (PMO) is the operational component of the ME. The PMO is the link between USAID and the CRSP projects, which are subcontracted to Auburn University, the University of California at Davis, CIFAD, and the University of Oklahoma.

The Management Office is located in the Office of International Research and Development (OIRD) on the main campus of Oregon State University, in Corvallis, Oregon. OIRD provides accounting, purchasing, and travel support. The CRSP reports directly to the Vice Provost for Research and International Programs through the Director of the OIRD. Ties to the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and to the Department of Bioresource Engineering, are maintained through faculty appointments, academic interests, and research subcontracts.

During this reporting period, members of the Program Management Office included:

Hillary Egna, Director (1.0 FTE)
Brigitte Goetze, Deputy Director and Egypt Coordinator
(1.0 FTE - not funded on core CRSP funds)
Marion McNamara, Assistant Director (1.0 FTE - partially funded on core CRSP funds)
Naomi Weidner, Secretary (0.75 FTE - partially funded on core CRSP funds)

The Management Entity (ME) is responsible for:

Specific accomplishments this year include:

The PD/A CRSP maintains technical linkages with the Tropsoils and the SANREM CRSPs. Maintenance of programmatic linkages with all the CRSPs, increases the visibility of the PD/A CRSP and of aquaculture in general. The cost of participation in CRSP Council activities is disproportionately high for the PD/A CRSP, which is funded at a much lower level than other CRSPs and which is thus more financially strained by participation. The Management Office participated in the following CRSP Council Council Conference calls:

16 September 1993
7 October 1993
4 November 1993
2 December 1993
3 February 1994
16 March 1994

Three advisory groups, the Board of Directors (BOD), the Technical Committee (TC), and the External Evaluation Panel (EEP), support the management of the CRSP. These groups work closely with the PMO to guide the CRSP through policy decisions, budget allocations, research strategy, review, and evaluation.

The Board of Directors

As the primary policy-making body for the CRSP, the Board of Directors takes an active role in program guidance. The Board is composed of three members, one of whom is elected chair. Auburn University, the University of California at Davis, and CIFAD are each represented on the Board. In addition, the USAID Program Manager for the CRSP and the CRSP Director serve as ex-officio members. All Board members function in the objective interest of the CRSP regardless of their institutional affiliation. During this reporting period, the Board members were:

Dr. Robert Fridley, University of California at Davis, Chair;
Dr. Philip Helfrich, University of Hawaii (CIFAD institution);
Dr. R. Oneal Smitherman, Auburn University;
Mr. Harry Rea, NMFS, RSSA to R&D/AGR, ex-officio member;
Ms. Hillary Egna, Oregon State University, CRSP Director, ex-officio member.

The Board of Directors is responsible for:

The Board of Directors convened once during this reporting period, in an extended meeting during the Annual Meeting (27 and 30 March 1994) in Hilo, Hawaii. Informal discussions are held regularly with the Board and approvals for some decisions are made through correspondence.

Specific accomplishments and recommendations made during this reporting period include:

Technical Committee

Researchers from U.S. universities and host country institutions comprise the Technical Committee, which advises the Management Entity on technical matters. The membership of the Technical Committee is listed in Table 1 in alphabetic order, with institutional affiliations and subcommittee assignments. Voting privileges are accorded each institutional partner in each project receiving CRSP funds. Institutions holding a vote on the Technical Committee are listed in Table 2 by project. The CRSP Director and the USAID Project Manager serve as ex-officio members, and at-large members are appointed by the Board of Directors. Dr. Ted Batterson continues to serve as the At-large Technical Committee member. The Technical Committee has four standing subcommittees: Work Plans, Materials and Methods, Budgets, and Technical Progress. Special committees are convened as needed.

External Evaluation Panel

A committee of external aquaculture specialists periodically evaluates the accomplishments of the individual research projects and the overall program to ensure that research projects and the program remain focused, relevant, and cost-effective. The External Evaluation Panel (EEP) is responsible directly to USAID and BIFADEC for the review and evaluation of the technical progress of the CRSP. During this reporting period, Dr. Homer Buck, Illinois Natural History Survey (retired), rotated off the EEP, leaving Richard Neal, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and Roger Pullin, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM). A search is currently underway to find a third panel member.

The EEP evaluated all CRSP sites in 1992-93. During the current reporting period, the final report of the External Evaluation Panel was published.

The final report includes program responses to the findings and recommendations of the External Evaluation Panel.

CRSP Publications

CRSP publications are an important part of the CRSPs technology dissemination. A broad domestic and international audience receives our technical and program reports. Approximately 300 people in 42 countries now receive CRSP publications. Technical reports are issued through two series, Collaborative Research Data Reports and CRSP Research Reports. The goal of CRSP Research Reports is to publish all research produced by CRSP activities, with the exception of research related directly to the Global Experiment.

Collaborative Research Data Reports contain the results and data from the Global Experiment, along with interpretations of site-specific results. The first volume of Collaborative Research Data Report contains a description of sites and experimental protocols for the Global Experiment. Subsequent volumes focus on each research site separately by experimental cycle.

Other reports published by the CRSP Management Office include Annual Administrative Reports, Quarterly Reports, Program Grant Proposals, Work Plans, and CRSP Directories. A Ten Year Summary of Activities in Honduras was also published during this reporting period. The Handbook of Analytical Methods compiled by the Materials and Methods Committee of the Technical Committee and the PONDCLASS Users' Guide have also been published through the Management Office.

Principles and Practices of Pond Aquaculture was one of the founding documents of this CRSP. At the time of its production, this volume was state of the art and filled a neglected niche in the field of aquaculture. Since its publication in 1983, it has been one of the most requested of CRSP publications. But advances in pond aquaculture made by the CRSP and others require that this valuable resource be updated. A new volume that approaches aquaculture production as part of the larger agroecosystem is in progress, Dynamics of Pond Aquaculture. The Management Office has contracted with Lewis Publications to publish the book. CRSP researchers are collaborating in writing the sixteen chapters that make up the book, and that approach aquaculture production as part of the larger agroecosystem.

In addition to PD/A CRSP-produced publications, the Management Office contributes to USAID's program reviews, publications, and presentations. Administrative and technical reports prepared and disseminated during this reporting period are briefly described below and may be ordered from the Management Office. Technical reports that were not processed by the Management Office are listed in the Appendix.

Administrative Reports

Annual Administrative Report

Egna, H., J. Bowman, B. Goetze, and N. Weidner, eds. 1994. Eleventh Annual Technical Report 1993, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 178 pp.

Egna, H. and M. McNamara. 1994. Eleventh Annual Administrative Report, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 80 pp.

Quarterly Reports

Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. January 1994. Quarterly Report. October-December 1993. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 14 pp.

Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. April 1994. Quarterly Report. January-March 1994. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 15 pp.

Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. July 1994. Quarterly Report. April-June 1994. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 18 pp.

Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. October 1994. Quarterly Report. July-September 1994. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 16 pp.

Directory

The CRSP directory contains an organizational chart and the addresses of current CRSP members from USAID, BIFADEC, USAID Missions, the CRSP Council, the External Evaluation Committee, the Technical Committee, the Management Entity, the Board of Directors, and the Collaborative Research Projects. The chart is updated annually or semi-annually, as needed.

CRSP Directory. October 1993. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

CRSP Directory. May 1994. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Program Management Office. Office of International Research and Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Newsletters

Aquanews, The Newsletter of the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program, is published quarterly. Aquanews serves to inform CRSP participants and others of program activities that are not of a technical nature. It contains information on project activities, meetings, travel of CRSP participants, and site visits. The following issues were published during this reporting period:

Aquanews, Winter 1993, Volume 9, Number 1. McNamara, M., ed. ISSN 1062-4996. PD/A CRSP Program Management Office, Office of International Research & Development, Snell Hall 400, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Aquanews, Spring 1994, Volume 9, Number 2. McNamara, M., ed. ISSN 1062-4996. PD/A CRSP Program Management Office, Office of International Research & Development, Snell Hall 400, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Aquanews, Summer 1994, Volume 9, Number 3. McNamara, M., ed. ISSN 1062-4996. PD/A CRSP Program Management Office, Office of International Research & Development, Snell Hall 400, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Aquanews, Fall 1994, Volume 9, Number 4. McNamara, M., ed. ISSN 1062-4996. PD/A CRSP Program Management Office, Office of International Research & Development, Snell Hall 400, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

The Data Analysis and Synthesis Team publishes a newsletter with the goal of improving communication between the DAST and the Principal Investigators in the field. During this reporting period, DAST Newsletter Nos. 15 and 16 were produced and distributed.

Technical Reports

CRSP Research Reports

Knud-Hansen, C.F., T.R. Batterson, and C.D. McNabb. 1993. The role of chicken manure in the production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). CRSP Research Report 93-56, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24:483-493, 1993.]

Boyd, C.E. and D. Teichert-Coddington. 1993. Relationship between wind speed and reaeration in small aquaculture ponds. CRSP Research Report 93-57, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquacultural Engineering 11:121-131, 1992.]

Teichert-Coddington, D.R. and B.W. Green. 1993. Influence of daylight and incubation interval on water column respiration in tropical fish ponds. CRSP Research Report 93-58, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Hydrobiologia 250: 159-165, 1993.]

Knud-Hansen, C.F. and A.K. Pautong. 1993. On the role of urea in pond fertilization. CRSP Research Report 93-59, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture 11:273-283, 1993.]

Shrestha, M.K. and C.F. Knud-Hansen. 1994. Increasing attached microorganism biomass as a management strategy for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production. CRSP Research Report 94-60, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquacultural Engineering 13:101-108, 1994.]

Springborn, R.R., A.L. Jensen, W.Y.B. Chang and C. Engle. 1994. Optimum harvest time in aquaculture: An application of economic principles to a Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), growth model. CRSP Research Report 94-61, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 23:639-647, 1992.]

Hopkins, D.D. and D. Pauly. 1994. Instantaneous Mortalities and Multivariate Models: Applications to Tilapia Culture in Saline Water. CRSP Research Report 94-62, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Multivariate methods in aquaculture research: Case studies of tilapias in experimental and commercial systems. M. Prein, G. Hulata, and D. Pauly (eds.). ICLARM Stud. Rev. 20, 1993.]

Green, B.W. and D.R. Teichert-Coddington. 1994. Production of Oreochromis niloticus fry for hormonal sex reversal in relation to water temperature. CRSP Research Report 94-63, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in J. Appl. Ichthyol 9:230-236, 1993.]

Engle, C.R., M. Brewster, F. Hitayezu. 1994. An economic analysis of fish production in a subsistence agricultural economy: The case of Rwanda. CRSP Research Report 94-64, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in J. Aqua. Trop. 8:151-165, 1993.]

Knud-Hansen, C.F. and T.R. Batterson. 1994. Effect of fertilization frequency on the production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). CRSP Research Report 94-65, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture 123:271-280, 1994.]

Teichert-Coddington, D.R., R. Rodriguez, and W. Toyofuku. 1994. Cause of cyclic variation in Honduran shrimp production. CRSP Research Report 94-66, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in World Aquaculture 25(1):57-61, March 1994.]

Springborn, R.R., A.L. Jensen, and W.Y.B. Chang. 1994. A variable growth rate modification of von Bertalanffy's equation for aquaculture. CRSP Research Report 94-67, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 25:259-267, 1994.]

Diana, J.S., D.J. Dettweiler, and C.K. Lin. 1994. Effect of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on the ecosystem of aquaculture ponds, and its significance to the trophic cascade hypothesis. CRSP Research Report 94-68, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48(2):183-190, 1991.]

Ayub, M., C.E. Boyd, and D. Teichert-Coddington. 1994. Effects of urea application, aeration, and drying on total carbon concentrations in pond bottom soils. CRSP Research Report 94-69, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in The Progressive Fish-Culturist 55:210-213, 1993.]

Boyd, C.E. and D. Teichert-Coddington. 1994. Pond bottom soil respiration during fallow and culture periods in heavily-fertilized tropical fish ponds. CRSP Research Report 94-70, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 25(3):210-213, 1994.]

Hopkins, K.D. 1994. Reporting fish growth: a review of the basics. CRSP Research Report 94-71, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 23(3):173-179, 1992.]

Hopkins, K.D. and J.D. Bowman. 1994. A research methodology for integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems. CRSP Research Report 94-72, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Jaw-Kai Wang, ed. Techniques for Modern Aquaculture, Proceedings of an Agricultural Engineering Conference, 21-23 June 1993. Spokane, Washington. 89-98. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MO, USA.]

Diana, J.S., C.K. Lin, and K. Jaiyen. 1994. Supplemental feeding of tilapia in fertilized ponds. CRSP Research Report 94-73, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 25(4), 1994.]

Knud-Hansen, C.F. 1994. Pond history as a source of error in fish culture experiments: a quantitative assessment using covariate analysis. CRSP Research Report 94-74, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture 105:21-36, 1992.]

Green, B.W. and D.R. Teichert-Coddington. 1994. Growth of control and androgen-treated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), during treatment, nursery and grow-out phases in tropical fish ponds. CRSP Research Report 94-75, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 25:613-621, 1994.]

Teichert-Coddington, D. and B. Green. 1994. Comparison of two techniques for determining community respiration in tropical fish ponds. CRSP Research Report 94-76, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture 11:41-50, 1993.]

Teichert-Coddington, D. and B. Green. 1994. Tilapia yield improvement through maintenance of minimal oxygen concentrations in experimental grow-out ponds in Honduras. CRSP Research Report 94-77, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquaculture 118:63-71, 1993.]

Teichert-Coddington, D.R., M. Peralta, and R.P. Phelps. 1994. Seepage reduction in tropical fish ponds using chicken litter. CRSP Research Report 94-78, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Office of International Research & Development, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. [Originally published in Aquacultural Engineering 8:147-154, 1989.]