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Central America

D. Central America

Estuarine Water Quality and Sustainable Shrimp Culture in Honduras

Work Plan 7, Honduras Study 1

David R. Teichert-Coddington
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
Auburn University, Alabama, USA

Abstract

Water quality was monitored weekly for more than a year at 13 sites in six shrimp-producing estuaries of Honduras bordering the Gulf of Fonseca. Water quality differences were noted among estuaries, along longitudinal transects of estuaries, and between rainy and dry seasons of the year. Estuaries influenced by rivers (riverine) were more fertile and had less capacity to assimilate greater waste loads than those not influenced by rivers. The Choluteca River discharged greater quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Gulf than did the 11,000 ha of shrimp ponds currently under cultivation. Eutrophication of riverine estuaries increased with distance from the Gulf because of reduced water exchange with the Gulf. Eutrophication in riverine estuaries was greater during the dry season when freshwater inflow diminished. No seasonal differences were seen for gulf embayments. The shrimp industry could take immediate steps to constrain estuarine pollution and promote management techniques that reduce waste load discharge to estuaries. Inaction will probably result in production losses similar to other shrimp producing areas of the world.

Prepared as an invited paper for Special Session on Shrimp Culture, WAS '95, San Diego, California.

Varying the Proportion of Colossoma macropomum and Oreochromis niloticus in Polyculture

Work Plan 7, Honduras Study 4B

David R. Teichert-Coddington
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
Auburn University, Alabama, USA

Herbert Ramos and Nelson Claros
National Fish Culture Research Center
El Carao, Comayagua, Honduras

Abstract

Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and tambaquí (Colossoma macropomum) were co-stocked in tropical earthen ponds at proportions of 0, 25, 75, and 100% of each species. Fish were offered a 28% protein pellet. Total density was 3 fish/m2. After 182 d, mean treatment production ranged from 2478 to 5120 kg/ha. Total production increased and feed efficiency decreased curvilinearly as the percentage of stocked tilapia increased. Feed efficiency ranged from 1.15 to 2.78. Total nitrogen and chlorophyll a decreased linearly as percentage of stocked tilapia increased, because of grazing by tilapia on phytoplankton. Mean tilapia and tambaquí weight ranged from 187 to 325 g and from 122 to 270 g, respectively. Tilapia mean weight decreased curvilinearly, and tambaquí mean weight increased linearly as the percentage of stocked tilapia increased. Tambaquí growth was thought to be hindered by relatively cool water temperatures. The best species mixture was 75% tilapia and 25% tambaquí.

Inorganic Fertilization and Feed Reduction in Commercial Production of Penaeus vannamei during Wet and Dry Seasons in Honduras

Work Plan 7, Honduras Study 3A

David Teichert-Coddington
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures,
Auburn University, Alabama, USA

Rigoberto Rodriguez
Granjas Marinas de Sn. Bernardo
Choluteca, Choluteca, Honduras

Abstract

Feed was offered to Penaeus vannamei at a standard rate, half the standard rate, half the standard rate in addition to inorganic fertilization, and inorganic fertilization for 8 weeks followed by the standard rate of feed. Shrimp were stocked at 7.5 fish/m2 in earthen ponds. The study was repeated during wet and dry seasons. Yield, survival and mean shrimp size were 294%, 36%, and 177% greater during the wet than dry season. Mean wet season yield for the 1/2-ration and fertilizer treatment was significantly greater than the 1/2-ration treatment. Otherwise, there were no significant treatment differences in yield. Feed conversion was significantly lower in the normal-ration treatment than in the other treatments. Fertilization had no effect on shrimp production during the dry season despite increasing primary productivity. The standard feeding rate could be reduced by 50% during the dry season without reducing shrimp yields.