|PD/A CRSP Twentieth Annual Administrative Report
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Subcontract No. RD010E-04
The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
|James S. Diana||US Principal Investigator|
|C. Kwei Lin||US Principal Investigator (stationed in Pathumthani, Thailand)|
|Barbara A. Diana||Research Assistant|
|Melinda Clarke||Graduate Assistant (CRSP funded from January 2002)|
|Amrit Bart||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Yang Yi||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Htin Aung Kyaw||Research Associate (Myanmar; October 2000)|
|Aye Aye Mon||Research Associate (Myanmar; partially CRSP funded from July 2002)|
|Potjanee Nadtirom||Research Associate (Thai; partially CRSP funded from September 2001)|
|Nguyen Thanh Long||Graduate Student (Vietnam; partially CRSP funded from January 2002)|
|Vu Cam Luong||Graduate Assistant (Vietnamese; partially CRSP funded from September 2001)|
|De Run Yuan||Graduate Assistant (Chinese; from January 2002)|
|Gautum Shrestha||Graduate Student (Nepal; partially CRSP funded from July 2002)|
|Saelee Wanwisa||Graduate Student (Thailand; partially CRSP funded January 2002 through August 2002)|
|A.C. Weerasooriya||Graduate Student (Sri Lanka; partially CRSP funded September 2000 through August 2001)|
|Madhav K. Shrestha||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|A.K. Rai||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Le Thanh Hung||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Le Thanh Luu||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Nguyen Thanh Phoung||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Md. Abdul Wahab||Host Country Principal Investigator|
This subcontract was awarded funding to conduct the following Tenth Work Plan investigations:
Note: In addition to the above investigations, the Asian Institute of Technology also collaborates with Michigan State University (10PDR2) and University of Arizona (10NSR3A and 10NSR3B). 10DSSR1 was approved after the printing of the Tenth Work Plan. The published work plan appears in the forthcoming Addendum to the Tenth Work Plan.
Bart, A.N., 2001. The use of ultrasound to enhance transport of compound into fish and fish embryos: A review. Asian Fish. Soc., 14(4):3645.
Bart, A.N., S. Athauda, M. Fitzpatrick, and W.M. Contreras-Sánchez, 2002. The use of ultrasound to enhance sex reversal in tilapia using immersion protocol. World Aquacult. Soc. (in review)
Lin, C.K. and Y. Yi, 2001. Development in integrated aquaculture in Southeast Asia. In: L.M.B. Garcia (Editor), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 1214 October 1999. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), Iloilo, Philippines, pp. 7788.
Lin, C.K. and Y. Yi. Minimizing environmental impacts and reuse of pond effluents and mud. Special Volume for the Proceedings of AIP Workshop: Management of Aquaculture Effluents. Aquaculture. (in review)
Mon, A.A., Y. Yi, and C.K. Lin. Use of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) for nutrient retrieval from fishpond mud. Aquacult. Eng. (in review)
Nadtirom, P., 2001. Comparison of growth performance of different sex genotypes (XX and XY) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the effect of androgen treatment. M.S. thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Nadtirom, P., Y. Yi, and G.C. Mair. Comparison of growth performance of different sex genotypes (XX and XY) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) and the effect of androgen treatment. Aquaculture. (in review)
Weerasooriya, A.C., 2001. Effects of AquaMats on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry in earthen ponds. M.S. thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Yi, Y. and C.K. Lin. Cage-cum-pondIntegrated aquaculture systems recycle wastes. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 4(6):6566.
Yi, Y. and C.K. Lin, 2001. Low-cost fertilization in inland pond aquaculture. In: IIRR, IDRC, FAO, NACA, and ICLARM, Utilizing Different Aquatic Resources for Livelihoods in Asia: A Resource Book. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, International Development Research Center, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific, and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources and Management, pp. 250253.
Yi, Y. and A. Yakupitiyage, 2001. Feeds in small-scale aquaculture. In: IIRR, IDRC, FAO, NACA, and ICLARM, Utilizing Different Aquatic Resources for Livelihoods in Asia: A Resource Book. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, International Development Research Center, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific, and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources and Management, pp. 263268.
Yi, Y., C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana. Effects of clay turbidity on fertilization, and analyses of techniques to mitigate turbidity problems. Aquacult. Eng. (in review)
Yi, Y., C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana. Hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in an integrated pen-cum-pond system: Growth performance and nutrient budgets. Aquaculture. (in press)
Yi, Y., C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana, 2001. Integrating intensive and semi-intensive culture system to utilize feeding waste. In: IIRR, IDRC, FAO, NACA, and ICLARM, Utilizing Different Aquatic Resources for Livelihoods in Asia: A Resource Book. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, International Development Research Center, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific, and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources and Management, pp. 250253.
Yi, Y., C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana. Optimization of nitrogen fertilization rate and carrying capacity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ponds. J. World Aquacult. Soc. (in review)
Yi, Y., C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana, 2002. Recycling pond mud nutrients in integrated lotus-fish culture. Aquaculture, 212(14):213-226.
Yi Y., C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana. Waste recycling in fish pond culture through integrated cage-cum-pond and pen-cum-pond culture systems. Proceedings of the Third World Fisheries Congress. American Fish. Soc. (in press)
Bart, A.N. Progress towards cryopreservation of fish embryos. Presented to World Aquaculture 2002 at Beijing, China, 2327 April 2002.
Bart, A.N. and A.K. Htin, 2002. Advances in cryopreservation of zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, embryos. Presented to Aquaculture America 2002 at San Diego, California, 2730 January 2002.
Bart, A.N., A.R.S.B. Athauda, M.S. Fitzpatrick, and W.M. Contreras-Sánchez. Ultrasound enhanced masculinization of Nile tilapia in immersion protocol. Presented to World Aquaculture 2002 at Beijing, China, 2327 April 2002.
Chen, G.Z., Y. Yi, Z.W. Wu, H. Miu, and Q.M. Zhang, 2001. Recent development of integrated rice-fish culture in China. Presented to the Sixth Asian Fisheries Forum at Kaoshiung, Taiwan, 2530 November 2001.
Luu, L.T., Y. Yi, C.K. Lin, J.S. Diana, and N.X. Cuong. Assessing watershed ponds for aquaculture development: A case study in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. Presented at the annual meeting of WAS in Beijing, China, 2327 April 2002.
Nadtirom, P., Y. Yi, and G. Mair. Comparison of growth performance of different sex genotypes (xx and xy) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) and the effect of androgen treatment. Presented to World Aquaculture 2002 at Beijing, China, 2327 April 2002.
Phuong, N.T., Y. Yi, C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana. Current status of Pangasius catfish cage culture in Vietnam. Presented to World Aquaculture 2002 at Beijing, China, 2327 April 2002.
Wahab, M.A., Y. Yi, C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana. Comparison of effects of different fertilization regimes on fish production, water quality, effluent and economic returns in Bangladesh. Presented to World Aquaculture 2002 at Beijing, China, 2327 April 2002.
Wu, Z.W. and Y. Yi, 2001. Culture-based reservoir fisheries in China. Presented to Aquaculture America 2002 at San Diego, California, 2730 January 2002.
Wu, Z.W. and Y. Yi, 2001. Fertilization regime and application method in reservoirs. Presented to the Sixth Asian Fisheries Forum at Kaoshiung, Taiwan, 2530 November 2001.
Yi, Y., C.K. Lin, and J.S. Diana, 2001. Red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) culture in brackishwater ponds. Presented to the Sixth Asian Fisheries Forum at Kaoshiung, Taiwan, 2530 November 2001.
AquaBusiness Seminar and Exhibition at Malaysia, 1619 January 2002. (Yi)
Aquaculture America 2002 at San Diego, California, 2730 January 2002. (Bart, Yi)
PD/A CRSP Annual Meeting at San Diego, California, 31 January 2002. (Bart, Diana, Lin, Yi)
Asia Region Expert Panel meeting at Beijing, China, 23 April 2002. (Lin, Luu, Wahab)
International Seafood Production Symposium at Rongcheng, China, 1012 September 2001. (Lin)
Sixth Asian Fisheries Forum at Kaoshiung, Taiwan, 2530 November 2001. (Yi)
World Aquaculture 2002 at Beijing, China, 2327 April 2002. (Bart, Diana, Lin, Luu, Nadtirom, Yi)
The experiment started in May 2002 and will be terminated in November 2002. The experiment is being conducted in 15 cement tanks of 24 m2 in surface area in a randomized complete block design. The purposes of the experiment are to evaluate the growth of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), to assess the nutrient and water quality regimes, to determine the composition of foods consumed by Nile tilapia, and to optimize the ratio of grass carp to Nile tilapia in the polyculture with napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as the sole nutrient input. There are five treatments with three replicates each: A) grass carp only at 0.5 fish m-2 (control); B) grass carp plus Nile tilapia stocked at 0.25 fish m-2; C) grass carp plus Nile tilapia stocked at 0.5 fish m-2; D) grass carp plus Nile tilapia stocked at 1.0 fish m-2; E) grass carp plus Nile tilapia stocked at 2.0 fish m-2. Grass carp fingerlings of 36 to 48 g in size were stocked at 0.5 fish m-2 in all tanks on 26 May 2002, and Nile tilapia fingerlings of 8.7 to 10.4 g in size were stocked at different densities in different treatments on 1 June 2002.
This study started in June 2002 and will be finished in March 2003. The fieldwork for this study is being conducted in Truong Dang Aquaculture Cove of Tri An Reservoir, Vietnam. The purposes of this study are to determine biomass production of various trophic levels in the fish culture cove, to construct a trophic box model for the selected cove, and to recommend ecologically sound stocking and management strategies for cove aquaculture. Biomass of terrestrial vegetation in the drawn down area has been determined before inundation in June and July 2002. The first bimonthly sampling has been done to measure water quality parameters and to determine the biomass of detritus, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos. The species and biomass of different species of cultured fish has been recorded at stocking in August 2002 and will be assessed at harvest. Finally, a trophic box model will be developed to assess potential of ecologically sound management for cove aquaculture.
This study started in November 2001 and will finish in October 2002. The work is being conducted on the So Thuong Canal and Tien River (one branch of Mekong River) in the Hongngu district, Dong Thap province of Vietnam. The purposes of this study are to investigate the cage culture system and its related environmental conditions, to determine the quality and quantity of pollutants produced by cages, to detect the fate of pollutants in the river, and to recommend methods for pollution mitigation in cage culture.
Ninety cage farmers were selected randomly and equally from each category (small-, medium-, and large-size cages) for interviews to investigate socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, cage culture practices, investment cost and return, problems, and other information using a structured checklist and open-ended type of questionnaires. The cage culture area was divided into three equal sessions (upstream, middle, and downstream) in both So Thuong Canal and Tien River. One cage in So Thuong Canal and two cages in Tien River were randomly selected from each culture session, giving a total of nine cages.
Composite water samples have been taken monthly at three depths (surface, middle, and bottom of the cages) from incoming water, inside-cage water, and outgoing water of each cage between 0800 to 1000 h. One extra composite water sample has also been taken 200 m downstream from the cage culture area. The water samples have been analyzed for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), organic carbon, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). Dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and temperature have been measured at three depths just before taking water samples. Diel measurements of DO, pH, temperature, TSS, and VSS have been conducted for three sessions, one in the rainy season and two in the dry season. Sediment samples have been taken every two months at 20 m downstream of the selected cages for the analysis of moisture, organic carbon, TN, and TP.
Feed and fish samples have been collected from the owners of the selected cages for analysis of moisture, organic matter, TN, and TP. Feed inputs, feed conversion ratio, and fish biomass data are to be collected from the owners of the selected cages.
An on-station trial was conducted in fourteen 100-m2 earthen ponds at the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July through December 2001. This trial was designed to evaluate different fertilization regimes currently used for aquaculture in Bangladesh and to compare effects of different fertilization regimes on fish production, water quality, and economic returns. There were five fertilization regimes used as treatments during the culture period: A) PROSHIKA fertilization regime, weekly application of 1,000 kg cow dung ha-1; B) Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) fertilization regime, weekly application of 156 kg cow dung ha-1, 28.125 kg urea ha-1, and 13.1 kg triple superphosphate (TSP) ha-1; C) Caritas fertilization regime, fortnightly application of 1,500 kg cow dung ha-1; D) BAU fertilization regime, fortnightly application of 1,250 kg cow dung ha-1, 31.25 kg urea ha-1, and 15.625 kg TSP ha-1; E) PD/A CRSP fertilization regime developed from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ponds, weekly application of 250 kg cow dung (dry matter) ha-1 supplemented with urea and TSP to give 28 kg N and 7 kg P ha-1 wk-1. The six carp species used in this on-station trial were silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stocked at a ratio of 9:8:6:6:3:2 at a stocking density of 1.02 fish m-2, giving 27, 24, 18, 18, 9, and 6 fish per 100-m2 pond, respectively. Mean stocking sizes of carps ranged from 6.3 to 10.1 g.
Among all tested fertilization regimes, the PD/A CRSP fertilization regime resulted in the highest fish production, followed by the BAU, BRAC, Caritas, and PROSHIKA fertilization regimes (P < 0.05). The two fertilization regimes (PROSHIKA and Caritas) using cow dung as the sole nutrient input during the culture period gave very poor fish growth performance and low production due mainly to the low soluble nutrients derived from cow dung. The other three fertilization regimes (PD/A CRSP, BAU, and BRAC) using the combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers resulted in much higher carp production. Analysis of water quality showed that the nutrients from the PD/A CRSP fertilization regime were oversupplied probably because this regime was developed in Nile tilapia monoculture with higher intensification compared to the carp polyculture used in the present trial. The BAU fertilization regime gave the highest profitability among all fertilization regimes, followed by the BRAC and PD/A CRSP regimes. Therefore, the BAU fertilization regime is the most appropriate for carp polyculture ponds in Bangladesh while the PD/A CRSP fertilization regime is suitable for carp polyculture ponds with higher intensification.
On-farm trials started in late June 2002 and will be termin-ated in March 2003. The best fertilization regime from the on-station trial conducted during July through December 2001 at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymen-singh, Bangladesh, was the BAU fertilization regime: fort-nightly application of 1,250 kg cow dung ha-1, 31.25 kg urea ha-1, and 15.625 kg triple superphosphate (TSP) ha-1. The on-farm trial is comparing the best fertilization regime with respective fertilization regimes of three nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) [Caritas, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), and PROSHIKA] in their own working sites. Twelve ponds in each NGOs working site have been chosen, and six ponds are being used for the best fertilization regime and the remaining six for the respective NGOs fertilization regime. The NGOs fertilization regimes are fortnightly application of 1,500 kg cow dung ha-1 for Caritas; weekly application of 156 kg cow dung ha-1, 28.125 kg urea ha-1, and 12.1 kg TSP ha-1 for BRAC; and weekly application of 1,000 kg cow dung ha-1 for PROSHIKA. No fish sampling will be done except for harvest. A partial budget will be conducted to compare economic performance of these fertilization regimes.
The objectives of this study are to determine the current state of abandoned and converted shrimp ponds in the study area; to assess attitudes, concerns, and interests of a number of stakeholders, such as farmers, government personnel, and community and business leaders, about abandoned ponds and possible alternative uses; and to assess the social and technical conditions necessary for diffusion and adoption of alternative uses.
Three provinces have been selected as study sites: Chachoengsao, Chanthaburi, and Samut Sakhon. The provinces selected have all undergone a rapid expansion and subsequent collapse of intensive shrimp culture. Fieldwork is being conducted in districts within the provinces that have been most affected by collapse of shrimp culture.
Numerous factors are hypothesized to impact the viability of options for conversion and reclamation of failed or poorly functioning farms. These factors include: historical land use patterns, land prices, urban growth pressure, population density, ecological conditions, access to agricultural extension, social dynamics, and economic stability. The selected study areas vary greatly in respect to these components and therefore comprise a representative sample of the spectrum of feasible future land use options.
Information will be gathered primarily through field interviews with supplemental demographic and geographic information to be obtained through relevant governmental departments. Information will be compiled in a Geographic Information System database.
Surveys have been designed for interviews with the various groups that will be consulted (farmers, stakeholders, and village heads). A methodology to use a Global Positioning System unit in conjunction with remote sensing imagery to assess the level of farm abandonment has also been developed.
Over 100 interviews have been conducted with culturalists and stakeholders in the provinces of Chanthaburi and Chachoengsao. Work will continue in Samut Sakhon on 10 September 2002. The diversity of use options has been surprising and impressive.
The data collection for this study started in October 2001 and finished in September 2002. The purposes of this study are to conduct a survey on biophysical features, land and water uses, and socioeconomic conditions of watershed areas in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam; to develop a detailed Geographic Information System database for planning of aquaculture development in the study area; and to identify and estimate suitable watershed ponds for aquaculture. The secondary data have been collected and are being analyzed. These include socioeconomic data (land use, water use, infrastructure, population density, and income distribution); physical and environmental data (water resource, climate, soil, and topography); constraints for aquaculture (water availability, protected land, polluted area, and urban centers); and a map of the study area. One hundred households have been selected for interviews using a structured checklist and an open-ended type of questionnaire, which consists of farmers socioeconomic status (land use, water use, infrastructure, family size, and income); current aquaculture practices (culture systems, culture species, production, cost, and benefits) and attitudes; and potential constraints for aquaculture (protected land, polluted area, and urban centers). One hundred watershed ponds have been selected for weekly recording of change in water depth and for sampling pond soil for analyses of texture and acidity. Out of the 100 selected ponds, 60 ponds have been randomly selected for monthly water sampling to determine conductivity, temperature, pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, total suspended solids, total volatile solids, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus.
This activity was intended to assist in the transfer of PD/A CRSP developed technology about tilapia culture to Nepal through on-station trials with feeding and fertilizing. Chitralada and Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain fry (21 days post-fertilization) were transported to the Tarahara research station in Nepal in mid-December. There was large mortality during handling of the GIFT strain fry due to cool temperatures (18 to 19°C). However, sufficient Chitralada strain fry survived to carry out the growth trial. The Chitralada strain fry were stocked in six different ponds (three with feed and fertilization and three with fertilization only) at 4 fish m2. Those receiving feed were first fed 80 days after hatch.
Fish were harvested in early August 2002. The fish did not grow from December 2001 to the end of February 2002 due to cool temperatures (16 to 20°C). At harvest, mean weight of fish ranged from 113 to 144 g among six ponds. While the largest individual harvested was 257 g, the smallest was 43 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between fed and fertilized (139.00 ± 30.53 g) and fertilized only (122.38 ± 28.00 g) treatments. Recruitment was observed in all ponds. However, a fertilized-only pond had the greatest production of mixed size-fingerlings by weight (1,325 g) while the fed and fertilized ponds had only 486 g mixed-size fingerlings. Slower growth of tilapia may have been due to a combination of stocking during the cooler month (December) and adaptation to the new environment.
The uniform sizes of fingerlings from this new recruitment were selected and again stocked (mid-August 2002) in the same six ponds. This will allow us to determine their growth when stocked during the warmer months and compare with winter stocking (with the fertilization-only regime). We expect to harvest these ponds during December 2002.
Since this study started in May 2002, the database and files residing on the server at Department of Bioengineering at Oregon State University have been transferred to AIT, and the web-based PD/A CRSP database <www.serd.ait.ac.th/CRSPdb> has been established and will be published soon. Several institutions such as Asian Fisheries Society, WorldFish Center (previously ICLARM), and Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific (NACA) have been contacted to request links to the PD/A CRSP database from their websites. Upon the receiving the complete dataset, the PD/A CRSP database will be finalized. A disk backup of the final version PD/A CRSP database will then be created, and CDs of the database will be distributed.
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