|PD/A CRSP Twentieth Annual Administrative Report
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Subcontract No. RD010E-12 (SIUC)
Subcontract No. RD010E-13 (UAPB)
Subcontract No. RD010E-A (OhSU)
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois
|Christopher C. Kohler||US Principal Investigator|
|Susan T. Kohler||US Principal Investigator|
|William Camargo||Research Associate|
|Fred Chu Koo||Ph.D. Student (Peru)|
|Konrad Dabrowski||US Principal Investigator|
|Mary Ann G. Abiado||US Principal Investigator|
|Rebecca Lochmann||US Principal Investigator|
|Joseph Biny||Graduate Student (India; partially funded by CRSP from January 2002)|
|Fernando Alcántara Bocanegra||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Salvador Tello||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Cesar A. Flores||Technician|
|Arturo Flores Huang||Technician|
|Marina del Aguila||Host Country Principal Investigator|
This subcontract was awarded funding to conduct the following Tenth Work Plan investigations:
Note: The Peru Project, Sustainable Aquaculture in the Peruvian Amazon, is a collaborative effort among Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Ohio State University, and the host country partners. SIUC is the lead institution for the Peru Project. SIUC and UAPB share components of 10FFR2. SIUC and OhSU share components of 10NSR2.
Alcántara, F., C.C. Kohler, S.T. Kohler, and W.N. Camargo, 2002. Cartilla de Acuacultura en la Amazonia. Manual in Spanish. IIAP-SIUC-CRSP-USAID.
Alcántara, F., S. Tello, C.V. Chávez, L.C. Rodríguez, C. Kohler, W.N. Camargo, and M. Colace. Gamitana (Colossoma macropomum) and paco (Piaractus brachypomus) culture in floating cages in the Peruvian Amazon, J. World Aquacult. Soc. (in review)
Fernandes, J.G.K., R. Lochmann, and F. Alcántara. Apparent digestible energy and nutrient digestibility coefficients of diet ingredients for pacu Piaractus brachypomus. J. World Aquacult. Soc. (in review)
Aquaculture America 2002 at San Diego, California, 2730 January 2002. (Alcántara, Camargo, Dabrowski, C. Kohler, S. Kohler, Lochman)
PD/A CRSP Annual Meeting at San Diego, California, 31 January 2002. (Alcántara, Camargo, C. Kohler, S. Kohler)
Latin American and the Caribbean Region Expert Panel Meeting at San Diego, California, 1 February 2002. (Alcántara, S. Kohler)
The first international training course titled Aquaculture of Amazon Species for Extensionists and Producers, has successfully concluded. Eighteen participants from the following institutions and organizations attended: Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (IIAP); Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Pesquero (FONDEPES); Organizaciones Sociales de Base; and the private sector from Peru, Brazil, Ecuador, and Colombia. We trained farmers, entrepreneurs, and technicians from government organizations and indigenous people from three Indian communities (Quichua, Shipibo, and Cocama) of the Amazon region. The next training course will be held in Iquitos (IIAP) from 25 to 30 August 2002. The outreach impact has been expanded to the Tigre River region (Santa Helena and Huayococha). By September 2002, we will visit this community under the auspices of CRSP-USAID and provide them with extension services, fish seed, and if possible basic materials (nets, nails, and ropes) to build 10 more cages, in addition to the 16 cages that Terra Nuova and IIAP built for this community. The two extensionists since February 2002 have trained 170 high school and vocational students and seven teachers (from Colegio Técnico Agropecuario El Milagro, Centro de Formación de Maestros Indígenas, and Instituto Superior Tecnológico Pedro A. Del Aguila Hidalgo), along the Iquitos-Nauta Road, with short-duration aquaculture training courses containing both theoretical and practical work. We will design a survey based on Terra Nuovas existing survey to be applied in November to the producers along the Iquitos-Nauta Road. The chat room idea proposed for the website changed to a more efficient system called the Amazon AquaForum, which was added in early August 2002 to the webpage about Amazonian aquaculture. This AquaForum allows users to formulate questions, which can be readily answered by other users sharing the same area of knowledge.
The larviculture nutrition experiment has been conducted in both Pucallpa and Iquitos, Peru. These data are currently undergoing analysis. The Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum and P. fasciatum reproduction experiment was also initiated. One broodstock of P. tigrinum and eight of P. fasciatum were sampled on May 2002. The last sampling campaign for the broodstock study will be October or November 2002.
Gamitana (Colossoma macropomum) and paco (Piaractus brachypomus) have good commercial value in South America because of their high growth rate and superior flesh quality. Two Amazonian catfishes, doncella (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) and tiger (P. tigrinum), have been recognized as potential aquaculture species in the region. Hence, our study was focused on evaluating and comparing the growth performance of gamitana and paco larvae fed different feeds and determining changes in plasma sex steroid hormones during the annual reproductive cycle of doncella and tiger.
At the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (IIAP)-Pucallpa, feeding studies were conducted with paco larvae using live zooplankton and dry feed (Biokyowa). Paco larvae administered with dry feed showed 99 to 100% mortality while larvae fed zooplankton had only 47 to 53% mortality. Paco larvae preferred to feed on cladocerans (Daphnia sp. and Moina sp.), copepods (Cyclops), and rotifers (Brachionus). Gamitana was successfully spawned using carp pituitary hormone, but egg mortalities were observed 8 h after incubation due to water quality problems.
Nutritional studies were also conducted at IIAP-Pucallpa involving the use of a local plant, camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), as an ingredient of feed for gamitana broodstock. Nine compartments were constructed in a large pond to allow three dietary treatments, to be replicated three times. Diets included: 1) diet devoid of vitamin C; 2) diet supplemented with an equivalent of 250 mg kg-1 ascorbic acid in the form of ascorbyl phosphate; and 3) diet supplemented with an Amazonian fruit, camu-camu at the equivalent of 250 mg kg-1 ascorbic acid. Results of this study will be presented in the final report.
Broodstock of doncella and tiger were collected, measured, and tagged, and blood samples were taken for steroid analyses. Doncella and tiger broodstock are currently being conditioned in IIAP-Pucallpa ponds in preparation for controlled reproduction studies. Data on plasma sex steroid levels will be presented in the final report.
At The Ohio State University, we conducted a study on the effect of semi-purified diets formulated with native Peruvian plants on growth and feeding efficiency of juveniles of paco (Piaractus brachypomus). The study aims to evaluate the effects of semi-purified casein-gelatin diets alone or supplemented with native plants on growth and feed efficiency in paco juveniles (2.01 ± 0.08 g initial weight). Fish were distributed into 12 tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Three tanks were randomly assigned to one of four diets: 15% wheat meal (diet 1 or control); 15% camu-camu substitution (diet 2); 15% aguaje () substitution (diet 3); and 15% maca (Lepidium meyenii) substitution (diet 4). The fish were fed experimental diets three times per day at 2.6 to 4% of body weight. Every two weeks weight gain was evaluated, and every three days the amount of food was readjusted for predicted weight gain. At the start of the experiment and biweekly sampling, three fish per tank were euthanized for histology and physiological analyses. Data obtained from these analyses will be presented in the final report. After six weeks of rearing, we observed that fish fed diet containing 15% substitution of maca meal (diet 4) showed the largest weight increase and greatest feed intake among the treatment groups.
The grow-out experiment for paco (Piaractus brachypomus) and gamitana (Colossoma macropomum) was initiated 20 April 2002 and is expected to continue until September 2002. Data for the various native Amazonian plant products that were fed to paco and gamitana have been collected from the producers along the Iquitos-Nauta Road and will soon be processed. The PD/A CRSP funded Ph.D. student, Fred Chu, conducted some preliminary seed dispersal experiments with the small and large fish portion of the experimental design this summer in Iquitos. Next summer he will conduct the remaining portion of the experiment. The partial results of this experiment are very exciting since the seeds of a couple of different fruits ingested by the fish germinated after they were collected and planted in sterilized humus, thus giving a strong indication of the seed dispersal capacity of some Amazon fish.
The broodstock nutrition experiment was initiated May 2002 and is being conducted until October or November 2002. Blood samples have been obtained according to plan and analyzed at The Ohio State University. The results of this study will be available by the end of 2002.
The overall objective of this study is to determine the effect of improved broodstock nutrition on maturation and spawning performance of gamitana (Colossoma macropomum) and/or paco (Piaractus brachypomus). In October 2001, gametes and blood samples from gamitana and paco broodstock were collected for laboratory analysis at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (UAPB). No gamitana eggs were obtained, even after injection with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRHa), so the females were apparently not ready to spawn. Total lipid analysis of all samples has been completed, and analyses of lipid classes and fatty acid composition are still in progress. Diet samples being used for different species at different facilities, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (IIAP) and Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Pesquero (FONDEPES), were also analyzed for proximate composition to determine whether dietary differences could be affecting the reproductive performance of gamitana or paco. Paco spawned consistently at IIAP but not at FONDEPES, while the reverse is true for gamitana. The broodstock diets at FONDEPES contain 5% less protein than those used for gamitana broodstock at IIAP and 22% less protein than those used for paco broodstock at IIAP. The feedstuffs used are very similar for all diets. Although previously vitamin C was identified as a potentially limiting factor in broodstock diets at IIAP, no vitamin C is added to the diets at FONDEPES, and their gamitana spawn consistently. Since the calculated vitamin C level of the FONDEPES diets is below the requirement of most fish species, it is possible that they are fulfilling some of their nutrient requirements from natural foods. However, other factors besides nutrition must also be considered as causes of the differences in spawning success of characids between IIAP and FONDEPES. Another goal of this project is to increase use of locally available ingredients in fish diets in Iquitos, Peru. We processed pijuayo fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and tested it as a feed ingredient compared to corn in a feeding trial at UAPB with paco. Pijuayo performed similarly to corn in terms of sustaining growth and survival, and it contributes beta-carotene to the diets, which might enhance spawning success. In other feeding trials at UAPB with paco, apparent protein and lipid digestibility coefficients as well as digestible energy values were determined for soybean meal, fish meal, corn meal, and wheat bran. The digestible values of soybean meal, when fed to paco, were somewhat low compared to digestible energy values of soybean meal when fed to other warmwater omnivores, but values for the other feedstuffs were comparable.
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