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Pond Dynamics and Appropriate Technology Research

PD/A CRSP Twentieth Annual Administrative Report

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Research Projects
Pond Dynamics and Appropriate Technology Research

Subcontract No. RD010E-B


Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
Ted Batterson US Principal Investigator
Christopher F. Knud-Hansen US Principal Investigator
Donald Garling US Principal Investigator

Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand
Amrit Bart Host Country Principal Investigator
De Run Yuan Ph.D. Student (China; CRSP funded from September 2001)

Cambodia Department of Fisheries, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Hav Viseth Host Country Partner

Regional Development Coordination for Livestock and Fisheries, Savannakhet, Laos
Duangchith Litdamlong Host Country Partner

Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Nepal
Madhav Shrestha Host Country Partner

University of Agriculture and Forestry, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Trinh Truong Giang Host Country Partner

Research Institute for Aquaculture #1, Dinh Bang, Tu Son, Bac Ninh, Vietnam
Pham Anh Tuan Host Country Partner

Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Md. Abdul Wahab Host Country Partner

Work Plan Research

This subcontract was awarded funding to conduct the following Tenth Work Plan investigations:

Note: The schedules for 10ATR5 and 10PDR2 were modified. The revised schedules appear in the forthcoming Addendum to the Tenth Work Plan. Owing to cost savings on materials, the researchers conducted seven rather than the five workshops originally proposed for 10PDR2.


Knud-Hansen, C.F., K.D. Hopkins, and H. Guttman. A comparative analysis of the fixed-input, computer modeling, and algal bioassay approaches for identifying pond fertilization requirements for semi-intensive aquaculture. Aquaculture. (in press)


Asia Region Expert Panel meeting at Beijing, China, 23 April 2002. (Shrestha, Wahab)
Aquaculture America 2002 at San Diego, California, 27–30 January 2002. (Bart)

Use of Clinoptilolite Zeolites for Ammonia-N Transfer and Retention in Integrated Aquaculture Systems and for Improving Pond Water Quality before Discharge

Tenth Work Plan, Pond Dynamics Research 5 (10ATR5)

Christopher F. Knud-Hansen
School of Natural Resources
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan, USA

De Run Yuan
Asian Institute of Technology
Pathumthani, Thailand


This research evaluated the ability of clinoptilolite zeolites to 1) transfer ammonia-N from animal manures to ponds without adding biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); 2) stabilize both ammonia-N concentrations and availability in fertilized culture systems; and 3) capture ammonia-N from pond water discharge for subsequent reuse in pond fertilization. The experiments took place at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), and the final experiment was completed at the end of July 2002. Preliminary analyses show that clinoptilolite zeolites can sequester ammonia-N from pig and chicken manures through cation exchange and release it again in ponds for algal uptake. Actual production and nitrogen exchange rates are not yet calculated, so the economic viability of this technology has yet to be determined.

Workshops on Using Principles of Pond Dynamics to Optimize Fertilization Efficiency

Tenth Work Plan, Pond Dynamics Research 5 (10ATR5)

Christopher F. Knud-Hansen
School of Natural Resources
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan, USA


During June and July 2002, Chris Knud-Hansen gave a total of seven three-day workshops in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Nepal. There were a total of 138 participants from academic and research institutions, national and provincial fisheries and extension offices, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. The workshops focused on 1) the application of the algal bioassay test kit for determining pond fertilization requirements; 2) understanding the ecological and economic implications of different fertilizer types; and 3) how to use knowledge of pond ecology for more effective pond management. The participants of all workshops expressed enthusiastic appreciation for both the practical simplicity and specificity of fertilization requirement identifications when using the algal bioassay approach. Post-workshop communications indicate that algal bioassays are already beginning to be used at Asian universities, government agencies, NGOs, and private farms.

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The Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP is funded under USAID Grant No. LAG-G-00-96-90015-00 and by the participating US and Host Country institutions. Questions for or about the PD/A CRSP? Comments about this site? Email