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Philippines Project
PD/A CRSP Nineteenth Annual Administrative Report

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Research Projects
Philippines Project

Subcontract No. RD010A-15 (UH)
Subcontract No. RD010A-20 (FIU)

Staff
Florida International University, Miami, Florida

Christopher L. Brown US Principal Investigator, US Regional Coordinator

University of Hawaii, Manoa, Hawaii

Robert Howerton Associate Investigator
James SzyperAssociate Investigator

Central Luzon State University, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Remedios B. Bolivar Host Country Principal Investigator
Joan T. Bulacso Research Aide (May through June 2001)
Jason Bulaong Graduate Student (March through April 2001; CRSP funded)
Eddie Boy T. JimenezGraduate Student (through March 2001; CRSP funded)
Julie Anne LanuzaUndergraduate Student (through October 2000)

Site Background

The PD/A CRSP has been active in the Philippines from the program's inception in 1982, with a hiatus from 1987 to 1992. Until 1998, research in the Philippines was reported as part of the Thailand Project, as the Philippines functioned as a companion site to CRSP sites in Thailand. In July 1998, the University of Hawaii (UH) was selected as lead US institution for the Philippines Project, and in August 1998 a Memorandum of Understanding was executed between UH and the Freshwater Aquaculture Center (FAC) at Central Luzon State University (CLSU). In June 2000 Florida International University (FIU) became the lead institution for the Philippines Project. FIU now holds an MOU with CLSU.

Early researchers in the Philippines concluded that the Central Luzon region was receptive to the adoption of CRSP technologies. CRSP Philippines Project research in this reporting period emphasized development of feed and fertilizer strategies. Research on optimum nitrogen fertilization rates addressed the Continuation Plan 1996 goal of determining optimum fertilization rates at different sites. Another objective was to enhance fertilizer and feed efficiency and improve resource utilization and was addressed by an investigation on the timing of supplemental feeding. Another aspect of Philippines research was the dissemination of CRSP research results through extension activities such as workshops and development of written materials. Human capacity development through student support and facilities improvements rounds out the current reporting period's activities.

Work Plan Research

The following Ninth Work Plan investigations continued into the current reporting period:

These subcontracts were also awarded funding to conduct the following Ninth Work Plan investigation:

Note: The schedule and methods for 9FFR3 were modified. The methods for 9ADR6B were modified. Revised schedule and methods appear in the Addendum to the Ninth Work Plan. 9FFR5 was approved after the publication of the Ninth Work Plan. The work plan for this investigation appears in the Addendum to the Ninth Work Plan coded as 9HCD4.

Networking

A collaboration between Central Luzon State University (CLSU) and the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) Foundation International is being formalized through a new memorandum of understanding. The organizations will work together on training aquaculture farmers in the use of PD/A CRSP feeding and fertilization strategies and the determination of standard curves for the growth of Oreochromis niloticus. The University of Arizona and the American Tilapia Association will also be involved in this effort.

Email contacts over the reporting period have included inquiries about tilapia farming, pond design, the types of tilapia strains and feed to use, and the economics of culture from places as far away as Ontario, Canada, and California. Most of the email contacts are from Filipinos living abroad who wish to establish tilapia businesses in the Philippines. The researchers commonly respond via email, and some replies are supplemented with written materials such as brochures and leaflets.

Two people visited Bolivar at CLSU to seek assistance on tilapia pond and tank culture, and technical assistance was provided to four individuals who made an inquiry on tilapia culture.

Domingo Guiwo, living in New Jersey, visited FAC after an initial contact had been made via email. Jim Mixon, an American working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, who has maintained contact with Philippines Project personnel via email since 1999, visited FAC in April 2001.

Bolivar gave a lecture on "Pond fertilization and feeding strategies: The PD/A CRSP experience" for a symposium on pond management that was held in conjunction with a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the founding of the CLSU College of Fisheries. An estimated 140 participants attended, consisting of farmers (13 females; 47 males), fisheries students (24 females; 20 males), and faculty members and staff (22 females; 14 males).

Bolivar and Jimenez also presented a paper on "Supplemental feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) below satiation level in fertilized ponds" in the Fisheries session of an Agency In-House Review of On-going and Completed Research held at CLSU on 30 May 2001. An estimated 20 people attended the session, including three evaluators, fisheries students, faculty members of the College of Fisheries, and researchers from FAC and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research.

Educational Outreach

Jimenez was involved in the training of 20 farmers in Quirino, Isabela, in the northern Philippines on the subject of tilapia cage culture.

Bolivar gave a presentation on the PD/A CRSP Philippines Project to 84 students of Brown's Introductory Marine Biology course at FIU on 27 January 2001.

Bolivar and Jimenez served as resource persons on a training for tilapia production and hatchery management at FAC from 17 to 19 April 2001. The subject of the presentation was "Tilapia Production in Ponds," and the training was attended by six participants (two females and four males) from the private sector.

From 13 November to 4 December 2000, Bolivar provided training on pond aquaculture to Irima Alinafe Gondwe, a student from Malawi. Gondwe also conducted her research under the supervision of Bolivar on the comparison of two feeding strategies: ration below satiation levels and ration based on fish biomass percentage.

Bolivar also lectured in four courses: Hatchery and Pond Management; Advanced Aquaculture; Management of Hatcheries and Related Facilities; and Hatchery Management, which has one Ph.D. student. She integrated methods and results of the feeding strategies and pond fertilization experiments obtained from the PD/A CRSP research into her teachings.

Brown twice visited North Miami Beach High School, which has a magnet program in science. He is currently establishing undergraduate internships for two research students, at least one of whom will study tilapia issues of direct relevance to the ongoing PD/A CRSP project.

Brown also presented a lecture at the South Broward High School Marine Magnet program, including a section on PD/A CRSP research and educational activities, on 29 March 2001.

Jimenez and CLSU faculty member Vera Cruz visited FIU for technical training sessions lasting 10 and 8 days, respectively. They received technical training in confocal microscopy, specimen preparation, measurement of protein by the Lowry method, spectrophotometry, and morphometric analysis of larval and juvenile fish.

Publications

Bolivar, R.B. and G.F. Newkirk, 2000. Response to selection for body weight of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in different culture environments. In: K. Fitzsimmons and J. Carvalho Filho (Editors), Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Tilapia Aquaculture. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 12–23.
Bolivar, R.B., EB.T. Jimenez, and C.L. Brown, 2000. Tilapia feeding strategy to optimize production in ponds. Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Gazette, 2(2):2–3.
Brown, C.L., R. Bolivar, EB. T. Jimenez, and J. Szyper, 2000. Timing of the onset of supplemental feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ponds. In: K. Fitzsimmons and J. Carvalho Filho (Editors), Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Tilapia Aquaculture. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 237–240.
Lanuza, J.A.D., 2000. Effect of stocking sizes on the growth and survival performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ponds. Undergraduate thesis, Central Luzon State University, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Conferences

Fifth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 3-7, 2000. (Bolivar)
Aquaculture America 2001 at Orlando, Florida, 21–25 January 2001. (Bolivar, Brown)
PD/A CRSP Annual Meeting at Orlando, Florida, 26 January 2001. (Bolivar, Brown)
USAID Biotechnology in Africa Roundtable at Washington, DC, 24 April 2001. (Brown)

Reduction of Feed Rations below Satiation Levels in Tilapia Pond Production

Ninth Work Plan, Feeds and Fertilizers Research 3 (9FFR3)
Final Report

Christopher L. Brown
Marine Biology Program
Florida International University
North Miami, Florida, USA

Remedios B. Bolivar and Eddie Boy T. Jimenez
Freshwater Aquaculture Center
Central Luzon State University
Nueva Ecija, Philippines

James P. Szyper
Sea Grant College Program
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Hilo, Hawaii, USA

Abstract

The goal of this study was to evaluate feeding strategies that could be used to reduce tilapia grow-out costs. Growth, yield, and survival of tilapia fed daily were compared at 100 and 67% of experimentally determined satiation. Analysis of growth performance parameters demonstrated that the reduction of rations to 67% of satiation had no effect on growth or yield suggesting that this approach may be useful to farmers wishing to reduce costs without compromising sales.

Educational Development Activities in Support of Tilapia Aquaculture in the Philippines

Ninth Work Plan, Feeds and Fertilizers Research 5 (9FFR5)
Final Report

Christopher L. Brown
Marine Biology Program
Florida International University
North Miami, Florida, USA

Remedios B. Bolivar and Eddie Boy T. Jimenez
Freshwater Aquaculture Center
Central Luzon State University
Nueva Ecija, Philippines

James P. Szyper
Sea Grant College Program
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Hilo, Hawaii, USA

Abstract

This host-country institutional capacity-building objective has been met and in fact exceeded, in part because of a small budget supplement that was made available late in the project. Three visitors from Central Luzon State University, Philippines, traveled to Florida International University as part of this objective, including two who received technical training. An additional graduate student at Central Luzon State University was supported in the course of his doctoral studies.

Physical improvements within the Freshwater Aquaculture Center were completed in the process of meeting the capacity-building objective; these improvements included the replacement of two obsolete computers, the renovation of teaching laboratories, and the construction of a set of poured-concrete fish-culture tanks on campus.

Production of Improved Extension Materials

Ninth Work Plan, Adoption/Diffusion Research 6B (9ADR6B)
Final Report

Christopher L. Brown
Marine Biology Program
Florida International University
North Miami, Florida, USA

Remedios B. Bolivar and Eddie Boy T. Jimenez
Freshwater Aquaculture Center
Central Luzon State University
Nueva Ecija, Philippines

James P. Szyper
Sea Grant College Program
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Hilo, Hawaii, USA

Abstract

Experimental results accumulated over two years of study indicate that a number of methods are available by which farmers can minimize the cost of feeding tilapia grown in ponds in the Philippines, with no adverse effects. Farmers have been clearly impressed with these results and the graphic demonstration of the potential to expand profit margins without adversely affecting fish health or uniformity. The distribution of extension brochures will allow the spread of this information more widely than is currently occurring (that is, by word of mouth, workshops, and newsletters). The inclusion of data and the contact information for project personnel will ensure the diffusion of useful technical details to tilapia farmers in and potentially beyond the Central Luzon region.


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