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Peru Project
PD/A CRSP Nineteenth Annual Administrative Report

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Research Projects
Peru Project

Subcontract No. RD010A-1

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Rebecca Lochmann US Principal Investigator
Felicia BeardenAssistant
Jason Brown Undergraduate Student Assistant


Colossoma and Piaractus are important food fishes in the Amazon basin, but little production technology regarding these species has been developed. Spawning and broodstock maintenance have been difficult to achieve, in part due to a lack of understanding of dietary needs of these species. A component of the Peru Project's Ninth Work Plan research (9NS3) involves the design of feeds using locally available ingredients for use in broodstock maintenance. Research on broodstock nutrition of Colossoma and Piaractus via proximate analysis of locally available feeds addresses objectives in the Continuation Plan 1996 regarding sustainable culture of new species.

Work Plan Research

The following Ninth Work Plan investigation continued into the current reporting period (see the Kenya Project (p. 59) for information on another funded investigation under this subcontract):

Note: The methods and schedule for 9NS3A were modified. The revised methods and schedule appear in the Addendum to the Ninth Work Plan. The study 9NS3, "Spawning and grow-out of Colossoma macropomum and/or Piaractus brachypomus," is a collaborative project among Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC; under Subcontract No. RD010A-12), The Ohio State University (as a sub-project administered by Subcontract No. RD010A-12), and the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. The following report addresses objectives related to local feeds; the remaining objectives are addressed in the 9NS3 report submitted by SIUC (see p. 49).


Lochmann had regular email contact with Alcántara regarding spawning schedules for Colossoma and Piaractus, and they discussed details of culture of gamitana, plans for the continuation of broodstock nutrition studies, and the formulation of broodstock diets.

Joaõ B. Kochenborger of São Paulo, Brazil, is at UAPB to complete collaborative research with Lochmann on pacu nutrition (nutrient digestibility trials). This arrangement is an effect of Lochmann's involvement with colossomids because of the Peru Project. Kochenborger's project is funded by the Brazilian government.

People have contacted Lochmann to express interest in colossomids as ornamentals. Fish farmers in Arkansas occasionally inquired about culturing them commercially.

Educational Outreach

Lochmann includes material from her CRSP project in fish nutrition lectures. While conducting two feeding studies with Piaractus, she used the studies for experiential learning in the lab. Her students also had an opportunity to work with the tambaquí from Peru that she keeps in her lab.

Lochmann has slides and transparencies (in English) that she presents to groups of visitors who visit the Fisheries Department at UAPB.

Lochmann presented a seminar at UAPB on 7 November 2000 regarding colossomid broodstock nutrition and fishes of Peru. Her audience was an undergraduate class of five students and two faculty members.


Aquaculture America 2001 at Orlando, Florida, 21–25 January 2001. (Lochmann)

Spawning and Grow-Out of Colossoma macropomum and/or Piaractus brachypomus

Ninth Work Plan, New Aquaculture Systems/New Species Research 3A (9NS3A)
Final Report

Rebecca Lochmann
Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Pine Bluff, Arkansas, USA


Proximate analysis of broodstock and grow-out feeds for gamitana (Colossoma macropomum) and paco (Piaractus brachypomus) and their constituent feedstuffs was conducted. Literature values for specific nutrients known to affect fish reproduction were calculated from published sources for the broodstock diet. Fatty acid and amino acid profiles of broodstock eggs were obtained. Analytical information on the feedstuffs and diets currently being used in Iquitos, Peru, together with the egg data and published information on the natural diets of colossomids and broodstock nutrition in other species, was combined to formulate preliminary recommendations for the nutrition and feeding of gamitana and paco broodstock.

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