PD/A CRSP Eighteenth Annual Administrative Report
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Subcontract No. RD010A-15 (UH)
Subcontract No. RD010A-20 (FIU)
Florida International University, Miami, Florida
|Christopher L. Brown||US Co-Principal Investigator, US Regional Coordinator (from June 2000)|
University of Hawaii, Manoa, Hawaii
|Christopher L. Brown||US Co-Principal Investigator, US Regional Coordinator (through May 2000)|
|James Szyper||US Co-Principal Investigator|
|Robert Howerton||Associate Investigator|
|Claudia Farfan||Graduate Student (Mexico; CRSP funded; through January 2000)|
Central Luzon State University, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
|Remedios B. Bolivar||Host Country Principal Investigator|
|Eddie Boy T. Jimenez||Research Assistant|
The PD/A CRSP has been active in the Philippines from the program's inception in 1982. Until 1998, research in the Philippines was reported as part of the Thailand Project, as the Philippines functioned as a companion site to CRSP sites in Thailand. In July 1998, the University of Hawaii (UH) was selected as lead US institution for the Philippines Project, and in August 1998 a Memorandum of Understanding was executed between UH and the Freshwater Aquaculture Center (FAC) at Central Luzon State University (CLSU). In June 2000 the lead institution for the Philippines Project was changed to Florida International University (FIU) and a new subcontract awarded.
Early researchers in the Philippines concluded that the Central Luzon region was receptive to the adoption of CRSP technologies. CRSP Philippines Project research in this reporting period emphasized development of feed and fertilizer strategies. Research on optimum nitrogen fertilization rates addressed the Continuation Plan 19962001 goal of determining optimum fertilization rates at different sites. Another objective is to enhance fertilizer and feed efficiency and improve resource utilization, which was addressed by an investigation on the timing of supplemental feeding. Another aspect of Philippines research is the dissemination is the CRSP research results through extension activities such as workshops and development of written materials.
The following Eighth Work Plan investigation continued into the current reporting period:
The following Ninth Work Plan investigation continued into the current reporting period:
These subcontracts were also awarded funding to conduct the following Ninth Work Plan investigations:
Note: The schedules for 8FFR1Ph, 9FFR3, 9FFR4, and 9ADR6B have been modified. Please see Appendix 5, "Completion Dates for Work Plan Studies," for revised schedule information. In addition, the methods for 9FFR4 have been modified. The revised methods will appear in the Addendum to the Ninth Work Plan.
CRSP researcher Christopher Brown visited the CLSU/FAC to assist with the completion of experiments and to meet with the university's administration, including University President Rodolfo Undan. Undan and Ruben Sevilleja, Director of the CLSU/FAC and Vice President of Academic Affairs, then traveled to Hawaii to meet with UH President Kenneth Mortimer.
Brown has remained in contact with the Philippine Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. He also established new contacts with two large tilapia farms designated as registered producers of Genetically Improved Farm Tilapia (GIFT). He also continues collaborating with the
Brown replied to a request via email from Andrew Kikeros in Perth, Western Australia, regarding marine net-pen cultures and a technical assistance request from a tilapia farmer in New Zealand. Additionally, Brown has provided information about fish diets and genetically enhanced tilapia to several people, including A.M. D'Silva from the University of Arizona. D'Silva wishes to make GIFT fish available to farmers in Arizona and Brazil. He maintains ties with both the Philippines and Thailand projects. Brown also helped J.C. Brown from Frankford, Delaware, who is planning a tilapia culture venture and asked for advice on diets and genetic strains.
In January, Brown met with the president of the Shrimp Improvement Company, located in the Florida Keys, regarding the possibility of beginning an internship program for graduate students and trainees. The internships would focus on the technical aspects of genetic management techniques in practical aquaculture situations.
Project staff in the Philippines have traveled to four farms (not including those involved with the project's on-farm trials) to assist farmers who had requested help establishing tilapia farms.
The Whitney Laboratory at the University of Florida asked researchers at UH to send specimens of a pure strain of tilapia and the red hybrid Oreochromis mossambicus. While they could not send specimens due to shipping restrictions, they did provide an alternate source.
The researchers have fielded several email requests for information about tilapia culture, specifically fish stocking, fertilization, and feeding questions. They responded to seven inquiries and have maintained contact with the senders, most of whom initially checked the CRSP website. They have also helped six people who paid direct visits to the center.
Brown presented a guest lecture to a senior-level fisheries course at UH. His lecture discussed the status of world aquaculture.
In November 1999, Brown hosted a field trip from the Sunshine Preschool (Kailua, Hawaii) to the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology. He guided twelve area children through a tour of the aquaculture facilities, gave them a brief introduction to fish breeding, and showed them baby fish and Artemia through a projection microscope.
In March 2000, Brown presented at a seminar at The Oceanic Institute in Waimanalo, Hawaii. The seminar discussed gastrointestinal system development and function and used current results from the CRSP Philippines Project.
Researchers at CLSU hosted a workshop in December 1999 for local area tilapia farmers. The group represented twelve farms, five of whom are already participating in on-farm trials. They discussed the year's experimentation results concerning experimental feeding strategies and the use of rapidly growing genetically modified tilapia (GIFT).
Project team members have been lecturers and laboratory instructors for six training programs that were held in the Philippines and covered topics related to tilapia pond culture and management.
PD/A CRSP Annual Meeting at New Orleans, Louisiana, 31 January2 February 2000. (Brown)
Remedios Bolivar received an award from CLSU for Best Doctoral Dissertation.
An experiment was conducted, following a standardized experimental design, to determine optimum inputs of nitrogen to be used in pond cultivation of tilapia. Twelve 0.05-ha earthen research ponds were used at the Freshwater Aquaculture Center of the Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, from 14 December 1999 to 14 March 2000. A completely randomized design was employed, involving the use of three replicates per treatment of the following nitrogen fertilization rates: 0,10, 20, and 30 kg N ha-1 wk-1 (termed Treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). Productivity, water chemistry, and cost parameters were analyzed statistically. A trend in mean body weights favoring the ponds receiving supplemental nitrogen was detected, favoring higher mean body weights in Treatments 4, 2, 3, and 1 in that order, although the apparent difference was not statistically significant due in part to inherent variance in growth and also to the competition of unwanted tilapia recruits into the experimental ponds. Yields were improved in the fertilized ponds (Treatments 2, 3, and 4) relative to those receiving no nitrogen (Treatment 1), although only the presence or absence of fertilizer had a significant effect, and not the concentration that was applied. Some water chemistry differences were noted, specifically higher Secchi disk readings, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen levels in ponds receiving less added nitrogen. The most cost-effective treatment was the addition of the lowest tested concentration of nitrogen (Treatment 2).
An on-farm trial was conducted in seven farms in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, to investigate the effect of two onsets of feeding on the growth, yield, and survival of Nile tilapia. There were no significant differences in the performance data (final mean weight, daily weight gain, extrapolated gross fish yield, and survival rate) that were recorded in this study. The only statistically significant difference observed was in the total feed used in the trial. The 45-day onset in feeding produced more gross value of the crop (P205,617 ha-1) compared with the 75-day delay (P197,063 ha-1), but by delaying the start of feeding, the costs were reduced such that the net value of the crop was improved (P124,242 ha-1 in 75-day versus P106,026 ha-1 in 45-day delay).
Ninth Work Plan Feeds and Fertilizers research (9FFR4) has determined that delaying the onset of feeding in tilapia grow-out ponds reduces farmer investment while maintaining production levels. The application of these research results is encouraged, and a workshop was held at the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, to extend the results to area farmers. Eight farmers participated in the workshop, which included both presentation of results and group discussion of impacts. Farmers who attended stated that they would immediately adopt the delayed feeding strategy. Since the workshop, farmers who heard of delayed feeding through word-of-mouth have already adopted the practice.
In our first year of work on the Ninth Work Plan
Philippines Project, we have generated meaningful results in two
areas: the reduction of feeds used in the initial phase of
grow-out ("Timing of the onset of supplemental feeding of Nile
tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ponds," 9FFR4) and the
cost-benefit of using only light application of fertilizers ("Global
Experiment: Optimization of nitrogen fertilization rate in
freshwater tilapia production ponds," 8FFR1Ph). Both of
these lines of work lend themselves to extension effort. The
results of the studies have been accepted by farmers near
Central Luzon State University, suggesting that broader
dissemination will have broader impact. We anticipate that a
broad base of the fish farming industry in the Philippines
will adopt methods shown convincingly to have the potential
to improve their profits while reducing the amount of
labor required. Thus far, we have presented results of the first
of these two series of feeds experiments in a
workshop ("Workshop on the timing of the onset of
supplemental feeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
niloticus) in ponds," 9ADR6A) at an annual CRSP meeting and at an
international meeting and have drafted a manuscript. We are
presently working on conceptual design for extension materials
for dissemination and have collected similar extension
materials (tech bulletins, fact sheets, etc.) from the US to use as models.
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