PD/A CRSP Eighteenth Annual Administrative Report
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Subcontract No. RD010A-12
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois
|Christopher C. Kohler||US Co-Principal Investigator, US Regional Coordinator|
|Susan T. Kohler||US Co-Principal Investigator|
|Marcos J. De Jesus||Research Associate|
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
|Konrad Dabrowski||US Co-Principal Investigator|
|Jacques Rinchard||Postdoctoral Research Associate|
Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru
|Salvador Tello||Host Country Co-Principal Investigator, Host Country Project Leader|
|Fernando Alcántara||Host Country Co-Principal Investigator|
|Palmira Padilla Perez||Aquaculturist|
|Cesar A. Flores||Technician|
|Arturo Flores Huang||Technician|
Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru
|Enrique Rios Isern||Host Country Co-Principal Investigator|
The Peru Project has been active since 1996 and is located at Iquitos, in the heart of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto Region). The lead US institution, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), collaborates with the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (IIAP) and the Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana (UNAP). In the past ten years IIAP and UNAP, along with the Peruvian government, have produced thousands of fry and have developed various aquacultural techniques. Colossoma and Piaractus are considered by local aquaculturists as the best fish for commercialization in the tropical part of Peru. (Tilapia have been introduced to all six USAID-presence countries in South America. However, they are illegal in the Peruvian Amazon basin.) Current research examines practical diets and densities for pond culture, examines gamete quality and spawning requirements, and conducts yield trials and cost analyses of various stocking densities.
This subcontract was awarded funding to conduct the following Ninth Work Plan investigation:
Note: The studies grouped under the research study code 9NS3, "Spawning and grow-out of Colossoma macropomum and/or Piaractus brachypomus," are collaborative efforts among the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (UAPB; under Subcontract No. RD010A-13), The Ohio State University (as a sub-project administered by Subcontract No. RD010A-12), and SIUC. The following report addresses rearing and reproduction objectives; the objective regarding local feeds is addressed in the 9NS3A report submitted by UAPB (see p. 55).
CRSP researchers Marcos De Jesus, Christopher Kohler, and Konrad Dabrowski visited Peru in October and November and met with several host country representatives. In Lima, they visited the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, where they received a tour of the host facilities, exchanged ideas about their feed production projects, and discussed other fisheries research conducted in Lima.
Project researchers Fernando Alcántara, Palmira Padilla Pérez, Kohler, Dabrowski, and others worked in Iquitos to engage in the production of Piaractus brachypomus. They were able to produce 850,000 healthy larvae, insuring a promising crop for future research and extension provision for neighboring farmers.
Kohler, Alcántara, and Salvador Tello met to organize an extension project planning committee. Participants included Marco Colace (Terra Nuova), Julio Tapia (Peruvian Ministry of Fisheries), and Juan Guerrero (CARE/Peru).
Researchers also met with Jessie Vargas and Fernando Galecio of the Universidad Nacional Agraria (UNA), La Molina, Peru. UNA is in the process of remodeling and expanding its campus research facilities and has several operational fisheries stations in Peru, some of which lie within the Amazonian flood plain. Vargas and Galecio have been concentrating on marine aquaculture but would like to change their focus to Amazonian fisheries and aquaculture research. De Jesus then traveled to Honduras, where he met with representatives from local universities, private farms, and the Chinese Mission.
In December, De Jesus traveled to Peru, where he attended and participated in a small, specialized conference focused on the development of aquaculture in the Amazon Basin. There he met with several colleagues, farmers, and aquaculture businesspeople from the host country. Among those he met with were Julio Fasanando Del Aguila and Maria H. Cuadros Dulante of the Peruvian Ministry of Fisheries. The two are interested in collaborating on the development of an environmental conservation project in the area of San Martin, Peru, an area that is negatively affected by intensive tilapia farming. De Jesus also met with Angel Pérez Duque of the Institute for the Regional Ecodevelopment of the Amazon, Ecuador, who is interested in developing Ecuadorian Amazon aquaculture.
Throughout the reporting period, Alcántara and Marina Del Aguila of UNAP offered weekend workshops in collaboration with nongovernmental organization (NGO) representatives in a Peruvian extension program. Alcántara also traveled the Iquitos-Nauta road offering free technical advice and support to beginning fish farmers. Tello and Alcántara frequently receive requests for information and assistance from the public.
Word is spreading in the region about the aquaculture industry and the support IIAP is offering to all those who wish to get involved with fish production. Landowners continually visit the IIAP facilities to request technical support or to ask about workshops. Many have taken advantage of the opportunity offered by IIAP and the NGOs and have initiated small farm operations on their land.
Dabrowski presented two seminars while visiting Peru in August 1999. The first seminar was presented at UNA and was entitled "Effects of vitamin C in prepared trout diets." The second seminar was held at IIAP, and was entitled "Global perspectives of aquaculture." The audiences each consisted of 30 to 40 scientists, faculty, and students.
In December 1999, Alcántara and De Jesus gave several presentations to audiences composed of scientists, professors, producers, farmers, government officials, NGO representatives, and students. Presentations were held in Iquitos, Peru.
Palmira Padilla Perez has continually offered general aquaculture courses to high school students in Iquitos to introduce them to the field and hopefully foster the students' interest in aquaculture. Padilla also participates in weekend workshops with Alcántara which benefit regional farmers involved in local extension projects and high school students.
De Jesus, M.J. and C.C. Kohler. The commercial fishery of the Peruvian amazon: Is it sustainable? Fisheries. (in revision)
Alcántara, F. Status of aquaculture in the Peruvian
Amazon. Presented to Development of Aquaculture in
the Amazon at Instituto de Investigaciones de la
Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru, 30 November4 December 1999.
Alcántara, F. Performance of Piaractus brachypomus and Colossoma macropomum stocked in ponds at different densities in Iquitos, Peru. Presented to Development of Aquaculture in the Amazon at Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru, 30 November 4 December 1999.
Dabrowski, K., J. Rinchard, F. Alcántara, P. Padilla, A. Ciereszko, and M. De Jesus. Preliminary assessment of gamete quality of Piaractus brachypomus cultured in ponds in Iquitos, Peru. Presented to Development of Aquaculture in the Amazon at Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru, 30 November 4 December 1999.
Kohler, C.C., S.T. Kohler, M.J. De Jesus, and F. Alcántara. Use of Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus brachypomus for sustainable aquaculture in the Peruvian Amazon. Presented to World Aquaculture 2000 at Nice, France, 26 May 2000.
Molnar, J., F. Alcántara, C.C. Kohler, S. Tello, and M.J. De Jesus. Aquaculture in the Amazon: Sustaining livelihoods, food security, and species in a complex ecological context. Presented to the V Central American Symposium on Aquaculture at San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 1820 August 1999.
V Central American Symposium on Aquaculture at
San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 1820 August 1999. (De Jesus)
Development of Aquaculture in the Amazon at Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru, 30 November4 December 1999. (De Jesus, Alcántara)
PD/A CRSP Annual Meeting at New Orleans, Louisiana, 31 January2 February 2000. (C. Kohler, S. Kohler, De Jesus, Dabrowski)
Aquaculture America 2000 at New Orleans, Louisiana, 25 February 2000. (C. Kohler, S. Kohler, De Jesus, Dabrowski)
World Aquaculture 2000 at Nice, France, 26 May 2000. (C. Kohler, S. Kohler)
Colossoma macropomum growth performance did
not significantly differ in trials conducted in ponds at
2,500, 3,250, and 4,000 fish ha-1 in Iquitos, Peru. Fish
initially weighing 3.4 g were fed a locally prepared diet (26.7%
crude protein; 9.0% crude lipid) in rations ranging from 3 to
5% body weight per day. Fish were harvested after 168 days
and had mean weights of 374.7, 307.7, and 287.0 g for the
2,500, 3,250, and 4,000 fish ha-1 stocking rates,
respectively. Survival ranged from 67 to 96%, though all but two of
nine ponds exceeded 80% survival. Feed conversion
efficiency was 40.4, 43.4, and 61.3%, respectively, for the 2,500,
3,250, and 4,000 fish ha-1 treatments. Fish in two of the ponds
were reared for an additional five months and attained a
mean weight of 1 kg. Water quality parameters remained
within acceptable ranges for tropical aquaculture. As with
Piaractus brachypomus in a previous study, this study suggests
the economic feasibility of rearing Colossoma
in the Peruvian Amazon. Generally, the combined cost of
fingerlings (US$0.14 each; corrected for 90% survival) and feed (US$1.02
kg-1 to produce 1 kg fresh fish) is under half the price (US$3.00
to $4.00 kg-1) for which the fish are sold in the Iquitos
market during flood periods.
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