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Research Projects - PD/A CRSP 18th Admin Report
PD/A CRSP Eighteenth Annual Administrative Report

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Research Projects
Pond Dynamics Research

Subcontract No. RD010A-07

Staff

Auburn University, Alabama
Claude E. Boyd US Co-Principal Investigator, Project Leader
C. Wesley Wood US Co-Principal Investigator
Brenda Wood Technician
Taworn Thunjai Graduate Assistant (Thailand; CRSP funded)
Oscar Zelaya Graduate Assistant (Honduras; CRSP funded)

Background

The interactions among nutrients, primary and heterotrophic productivity, and fish yield are known as pond dynamics. Water quality imbalances that have their origins in interactions between pond soil and water are not fully understood. Current PD/A CRSP research in pond dynamics focuses on the influence of pond bottom soils on water quality and productivity. The two primary goals of pond dynamics research are characterizing the soils at each of the PD/A CRSP research sites (Honduras, Peru, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand) and examining the changes in organic matter and nutrient concentrations and availability over time. The results will be used to develop a pond soil classification system similar to that used in terrestrial soils. The information on changes in nutrient availability over time and site soil characteristics will be especially relevant to pond fertilization studies and practices.

Work Plan Research

The following Ninth Work Plan investigation continued into the current reporting period (see Effluents and Pollution Research (p. 35) for information on another funded investigation under this subcontract):

Note: The schedule for 9PDR2 has been modified. Please see Appendix 5, "Completion Dates for Work Plan Studies," for schedule information.

Networking

In September 1999, CRSP researchers Claude Boyd and Wes Wood visited former CRSP ponds at the Ayutthaya Freshwater Fisheries Station in Thailand to collect soil samples. They also sampled soil from commercial aquaculture ponds near Chantaburi. The researchers held meetings with Mali Boonyaratpalin of Thailand's Department of Fisheries regarding CRSP pond soil research.

Boyd has worked with Jason Clay of the World Wildlife Fund and Michael Phillips of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) in regard to best management practices (BMPs) for soils.

During a trip to South America, Boyd met with Julio Queiroz of the Embrapa (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) Environmental Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. Queiroz assisted with the collection of soil samples in Brazil and later visited Auburn University for three weeks to discuss CRSP research with Boyd. Boyd also met with scientists from Epagri (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina) to discuss the use of BMPs in aquaculture.

Boyd has been collaborating with several groups and using PD/A CRSP data to prepare an upcoming Codes of Conduct in Aquaculture publication. Six BMPs have been created with data from CRSP soils research for use by the Global Aquaculture Alliance. Boyd also recommended BMPs to the Alabama Catfish Producers Association; two of the BMPs used CRSP soil data.

CRSP Philippines Project researcher Remedios Bolivar coordinated Wood's and graduate student Martha Rowan's visit to the Philippines and aided in the collection of core samples. Wood also visited with several university administrators, including University President Rodolfo Undan and Ruben C. Sevilleja, Vice President of Academic Affairs and Director of the Freshwater Aquaculture Center at Central Luzon State University.

Boyd received fifteen telephone requests (twelve US, three international), sixteen emails (three US, thirteen international), and one international letter from individuals requesting information on pond soil management.

Educational Outreach

Boyd made presentations on aquaculture-related topics to several governmental and nongovernmental organizations, private-sector businesses, and public groups. Boyd's lecture themes included water quality, aquaculture codes of conduct, environmental issues, soil management, and various shrimp-related topics, and he presented them to the National Prawn Company in Al Lith, Saudi Arabia; Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas (CENAIM) in Ecuador; Walailak University in Thailand; the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA) Fisheries Station in São Paulo, Brazil; and groups of shrimp farmers and workers in Colombia and Madagascar.

Publications

Boyd, C.E., 2000. Water Quality, An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 330 pp.
Boyd, C.E. and M.C. Haws, 1999. Good management practices (GMPs) to reduce environmental impacts and improve efficiency of shrimp aquaculture in Latin America. In: B.W. Green, H.C. Clifford, M. McNamara, and G.M. Montaño (Editors), V Central American Symposium on Aquaculture. San Pedro Sula, Honduras, pp. 9–33.
Boyd, C.E. and L. Massaut, 1999. Risks associated with the use of chemicals in pond aquaculture. Aquacult. Eng., 20(1999):113–132.
Sonnenholzner, S. and C.E. Boyd, 2000. Chemical and physical properties of shrimp pond bottom soils in Ecuador. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 31:358-375.
Sonnenholzner, S. and C.E. Boyd, 2000. Vertical gradients of organic matter concentration and respiration rate in pond bottom soils. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 31:376–380.
Sonnenholzner, S. and C.E. Boyd. Managing the accumulation of organic matter deposited on the bottom of shrimp ponds: Do chemical and biological probiotics really work? World Aquacult. 31(3). (in press)
Thunjai, T., C.E. Boyd and K. Dube. Pond soil pH measurement. J. World Aquacult. Soc. (submitted)

Presentations

Boyd, C.E. Environmental issues in shrimp farming. Plenary address presented to the V Central American Symposium on Aquaculture at San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 18–20 August 1999.
Boyd, C.E. Codes of conduct and better management practices in shrimp farming. Presented to the Fifth Ecuadorian Aquaculture Conference at Guayaquil, Ecuador, 28–30 October 1999.
Boyd, C.E. Pond water and soil management procedures to minimize the effects of disease epidemics in shrimp farming. Presented to the Fifth Ecuadorian Aquaculture Conference at Guayaquil, Ecuador, 28–30 October 1999.
Boyd, C.E. Pond soil management and shrimp aquaculture. Presented to the First National Symposium on Aquaculture at Penang, Malaysia, 22–24 November 1999.
Boyd, C.E. Water quality characteristics of overflow from aquaculture ponds. Presented to Aquaculture America 2000 at New Orleans, Louisiana, 2–5 February 2000.
Boyd, C.E. Use of BMPs in a systems approach to aquaculture. Presented at Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium at Bangkok, Thailand, 20–25 February 2000.
Boyd, C.E. An overview of the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP. Presented at the Western Regional Aquaculture Expo 2000 at Desert Hot Springs, California, 27 February–1 March 2000.
Boyd, C.E. Aquaculture and the environment. Plenary address, presented at the Western Regional Aquaculture Expo 2000 at Desert Hot Springs, California, 27February–1 March 2000.
Boyd, C.E. Substance exchange between pond sediments and water. Presented at the Western Regional Aquaculture Expo 2000 at Desert Hot Springs, California, 27 February–1 March 2000.
Boyd, C.E. Reduction in environmental impact of pond aquaculture through proper site selection, design, and construction. Presented to World Aquaculture 2000 at Nice, France, 2–6 May 2000.
Boyd, C.E. and M.C. Haws. Good management practices (GMPs) to reduce environmental impacts and improve efficiency of shrimp aquaculture in Latin America. Presented to the V Central American Symposium on Aquaculture at San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 18–20 August 1999.

Conferences

V Central American Symposium on Aquaculture at San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 18–20 August 1999. (Boyd)
Fifth Ecuadorian Aquaculture Conference at Guayaquil, Ecuador, 28–30 October 1999. (Boyd)
First National Symposium on Aquaculture at Penang, Malaysia, 22–24 November 1999. (Boyd)
PD/A CRSP Annual Meeting at New Orleans, Louisiana, 31 January–2 February 2000. (Boyd, Thunjai, Zelaya)
Aquaculture America 2000 at New Orleans, Louisiana, 2–5 February 2000. (Boyd, Thunjai, Zelaya)
Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium at Bangkok, Thailand, 21–26 February 2000. (Boyd)
Western Regional Aquaculture Expo 2000 at Desert Hot Springs, California, 27 February–1 March 2000. (Boyd)
World Aquaculture 2000 at Nice, France, 2–6 May 2000. (Boyd)

Award

C.E. Boyd received Honorary Life Membership in the World Aquaculture Society.

Pond Soil Characteristics and Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter and Nutrients

Ninth Work Plan, Pond Dynamics Research 2 (9PDR2)
Progress Report


Claude E. Boyd
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
Auburn University, Alabama, USA

C. Wesley Wood
Department of Agronomy and Soils
Auburn University, Alabama, USA

Taworn Thunjai and Martha Rowan
Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
Auburn University, Alabama, USA

Karen Dube
Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Verosa, Mumbai, India

Abstract

Pond soil cores were obtained from six ponds in Thailand. Cores were segmented into 2-cm-long segments which were analyzed for texture, bulk density, pH, organic carbon, and major and minor nutrients. The resulting information increases the data base for use in presenting a concept of pond soil development and for preparation of a pond soil classification system. The six ponds in Thailand had profiles with discernible layers (horizons). Bulk density tended to increase with depth in the profile. Concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus decreased with depth, but sulfur concentration increased with depth. Concentrations of mineral nutrients were within the ranges of values found at other sites sampled during this project. There was considerable variation in bottom soil pH estimates made by the several methods used in aquaculture. The simplest and most reliable method, direct insertion of a standard pH probe into a 1:1 mixture of dry soil (dried at 40°C and pulverized to pass through a 2.36-mm screen) and distilled water, should be adopted as a standard procedure.

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