PD/A CRSP Eighteenth Annual Administrative Report
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Subcontract No. RD010A-10
Auburn University, Alabama
|Joseph J. Molnar||US Principal Investigator, Project Leader|
|Malkia Lockhart||Graduate Research Assistant (Bahamas; through December 1999; CRSP funded)|
|Steve Mikloucich||Graduate Research Aide (US; from May 2000)|
Sagana Fish Farm, Sagana, Kenya
|Judith Amadiva||Social Development Officer|
|Bethuel Omolo||Head of Station (through December 1999)|
Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru
|Fernando Alcántara||Host Country Co-Principal Investigator|
|Salvador Tello||Host Country Co-Principal Investigator|
Adoption/Diffusion Research investigates the barriers to assimilation of technological innovations through extension and training. Advances in basic understanding of the pond environment and cultural practices must eventually be translated and diffused to hatcheries, fish farmers, and other agencies and organizations involved in aquaculture development. Documenting the central mechanisms of transaction between fish farmers and the knowledge system in aquaculture is a fundamental objective of this work. Current activities build upon earlier Adoption/Diffusion Research, with a survey instrument that was used in Honduras, Thailand, Philippines, and Kenya being employed in Peru. This research completed Eighth Work Plan objectives of identifying farmer perceptions towards aquaculture, technology, and extension.
The following Eighth Work Plan investigations continued into the current reporting period:
CRSP researchers involved in Adoption/Diffusion research are collaborating with CARE/Peru and Terra Nuova, an Italian nongovernmental organization (NGO). The NGOs are using the study results to shape their community-level training and outreach programs to include aquaculture as an option for farmers and communities in Peru. CRSP researcher Fernando Alcántara, located at the Institute de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (IIAP), continues making presentations to CARE/Peru, local NGOs, and other groups in the Iquitos area.
Molnar has used his research and experiences with the PD/A CRSP as an aid in two graduate classes he teaches at Auburn, one on rural sociology and another on extension programs and methods.
Lockhart, M., 1999. Farmer perceptions of constraints
on aquaculture development in Central Kenya:
Market, household, and resource considerations. M.S.
thesis, Auburn University, Alabama.
Molnar, J.J., 2000. Sound policies for food security: The role of culture and social organization. Rev. Agric. Econ., 21(2):489498.
Molnar, J.J., F. Alcántara, and S. Tello. Sustaining
livelihoods, ecologies, and rural communities. Presented to
the American Association for the Advancement of
Science 2000 AAAS Annual Meeting and Science
Innovation Exposition at Washington, DC, 1722 February 2000.
Molnar, J.J., F. Alcántara, and S. Tello. Sustaining small-scale aquaculture in the Peruvian Amazon: Producer perceptions of constraints and opportunities. Presented to World Aquaculture 2000 at Nice, France, 26 May 2000.
2000 AAAS Annual Meeting and Science Innovation Exposition at Washington, DC, 1722 February
World Aquaculture 2000 at Nice, France, 26 May 2000. (Molnar)
Data were collected from a sample of 146 practicing fish farmers in the Napo, Tamishiyacu, and Tahuayo river systems areas north and south of Iquitos, Peru, as well as in the Iquitos-Nauta Road area directly south of the city. Fish farmers were identified in selected communities that were provided technical assistance in aquaculture by CARE/Peru and several other nongovernmental organizations. The data suggest few differences in extension experience and perceptions by species cultured, but there is a notable pattern of differences across three measures of farm size. Larger operators tended to have more contact with extension and were slightly more likely to want extension contact in the future. There was little difference by farm size regarding contact with university technicians working in aquaculture or contact with government fish stations. Nearly all farmers wanted extension contact in the future.
The Peruvian Amazon is in an advantageous situation
for fish culture. Survey data from 146 practicing fish
farmers show that they culture a variety of species, but regardless
of the kind of fish they grow, farmers view fish culture in
a positive light. While gamitana (Colossoma
macropomum) is not the only Amazon fish to deserve special attention, it is
the first species about which enough is known to both
manage wild stocks and develop aquaculture. PD/A CRSP
research at the Quistococha Station near Iquitos, Peru, focuses on
this species. Most respondents grew a number of
different species, planned to build more ponds, were content
with growing fish, and felt the pond was the best use of the
land it occupies. In addition, most felt that the pond was
worth the work put into it. One of the most problematic aspects
of owning a fish pond is the loss of inventory due to human
or animal predation. The data show 58% of
respondents indicating problems with people stealing fish; 75% of
the tucanare (Cichla ocellaris) growers had this problem.
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