PD/A CRSP Eighteenth Annual Administrative Report
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The PD/A CRSP was initiated formally on 1 September 1982 as a Title XII program under the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1975. The Consortium for International Fisheries and Aquaculture Development (CIFAD), Auburn University (AU), and the University of California, Davis (UCD) were chosen to participate in a tripartite management of the PD/A CRSP, and CIFAD was designated as the lead group in the management of the program, with Oregon State University (OSU) serving as lead institution. CIFAD, no longer a functional entity, consisted of the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (UAPB), the University of Hawaii (UH), the University of Michigan (UM), Michigan State University (MSU), and OSU. Most of the CIFAD institutions continue to participate in the PD/A CRSP. However, beginning with this Grant and the dissolution of CIFAD, a new advisory structure allows greater equity among participating institutions and provides an effective mechanism for new institutions to be represented on the Board of Directors.
In 1980, the First PD/A CRSP Preliminary Design Proposal was approved by the Joint Committee on Agricultural Research and Development (JCARD). The approach for designing the PD/A CRSP included a review and synthesis of the state of the art of pond aquaculture, overseas site visits to determine research needs in host countries, and negotiation of provisional administrative agreements with collaborating institutions. Findings from the literature and field surveys were translated into planning guidelines. The most important needs identified for improving the efficiency of pond culture systems were 1) the need for technological advances to improve the reliability of pond production and 2) the need for economic optimization based on local conditions. The common link was to improve the understanding of pond dynamics.
The 1980 Preliminary Proposal identified four systems which were considered to have the greatest potential for contributing to the supply of low-cost animal protein. These systems, listed in priority sequence according to the proportion of rural poor they would expect to serve, are:
The main research objectives for the first five years of the PD/A CRSP (19821987 PD/A CRSP Grant) were:
These objectives were modified in 1986 because of technical, geopolitical, and financial considerations. A data analysis and synthesis component was added in 1987 with the following objectives:
The 19871990 Continuation Plan addressed the most important objectives of the original plan, with the goal of synthesizing the results of the first three work plans as a staged progression into a conceptual model of pond aquaculture systems. This model was used to identify research needs which were prioritized and translated into objectives for field research projects specific for each host country.
The programmatic and operational objectives in the 19901995 Continuation Plan were:
While many program objectives have been met over the past decade of PD/A CRSP research, the original program goal, that advances in pond aquaculture are based on greater understanding of pond dynamics, continues to be relevant. It serves as an effective organizing principle for new research that aims at resolving constraints faced by farmers and commercial aquaculturists in the US and host countries.
1 August 1996 marked the beginning of the PD/A CRSPs first year of operations under its fourth 5-year USAID grant (the Continuation Plan 19962001).
With the initiation of the 1987 CRSP Grant, host country and US institutions renewed their Memoranda of Understanding (MOU). These MOUs reflected the structural changes that had occurred since 1982. While several US universities collaborated at each country site, only one represented the US in each MOU. This structure provided for a more equitable arrangement with the host country institutions.
For example, UM, a CIFAD member, had separate MOUs with the Thai Department of Fisheries and the Asian Institute of Technology. UM and the Thai Department of Fisheries acted as the lead US university and host country institution, respectively, in Thailand. This provided a focal point for the other institutions that worked on the CRSP project in Thailand. UM in turn had informal subagreements with MSU and UH.
Likewise, the Université Nationale du Rwanda held a MOU with OSU, the lead US university on the Rwanda Project. As lead, OSU was the main contact for the Rwandan researchers and was responsible for overall coordination of US CRSP research activities in Rwanda. AU and UAPB collaborated with OSU in Rwanda.
In Honduras, AU held a MOU with the Secretaría de Recursos Naturales (since renamed the Secretaría de Agricultura y Ganadería). In Egypta bilaterally funded project under USAID/CairoOSU held the MOU with the Egyptian National Agricultural Research Project.
This hierarchical structure differed from the contractual arrangements among US universities and the Management Entity (ME). While all participating institutions had access to the services of the ME, past contractual agreements were made directly with AU, UCD, and CIFAD. CIFAD in turn had formal contracts with its member universities: UM, MSU, OSU, UH, and UAPB. When CIFAD was dissolved, all institutions were elevated to the same contractual status. The hierarchical arrangement arrived at through the designation of lead US universities was seen to promote a greater degree of cooperation among US universities and greater involvement of the host institutions at the highest level. Certain programmatic and fiscal responsibilities were delegated to participating US institutions through subagreements from the ME. For the Egypt Project, the ME had formal contracts with each participating university.
Since the initiation of the current grant, the Continuation Plan 19962001, new lead projects have been established in Mexico, Peru, Kenya, and the Philippines, and institutional relationships were restructured for the Honduras Project.
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) was awarded funding as the lead US institution for research in Peru. By 1997, MOUs were in place between SIUC and the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana and the Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Peru. In Kenya, CRSP research was underway in 1997, under a new MOU between OSU and the Kenya Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Wildlife and Tourism (the Department moved in 1998 to the Ministry of Natural Resources and again in 2000 to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). OSU is the lead US institution for the Kenya Project, sharing responsibility with AU for a joint research work plan. Under previous grants, the Philippines served as a companion site to the lead Southeast Asia site at the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand; however, the Continuation Plan 19962001 identified the Philippines as a potential lead site. In October 1997, the Management Entity issued a restricted Request for Proposals (RFP) for lead US and host country institutions for a new Philippines Project. Upon completion of internal and external peer reviews and evaluations of proposals, UH was awarded funding to serve as lead institution of the Philippines Project. A new subcontract with UH was established in July 1998; the host country collaborating institution is Central Luzon State University (CLSU). In 2000, the US Regional Coordinator moved to Florida International University (FIU). A new subcontract with FIU was established in June 2000, and a new MOU between FIU and CLSU is in the process of being formalized.
In January 1999 the extant Honduras Project, led by AU, declined an award offer for Ninth Work Plan research and dissolved its MOU with the Secretaría de Agricultura y Ganadería in Honduras in April 1999. To identify new lead US and host country institutions for a new Honduras Project, the ME issued a restricted RFP in March 1999. The University of Georgia (UG) was selected as the new Honduras lead US institution with Escuela Agrícola Panamericana El Zamorano as the host country institution and AU as a collaborating US institution. Under subcontracts with OSU, UG and AU commenced work on the Honduras Project in May 1999.
At the close of the present reporting period, Memoranda of Understanding are in place among the following CRSP partner institutions:
The PD/A CRSP also has formal agreements with the following organizations:
Many other informal agreements exist with
nongovernmental organizations, private voluntary
organizations, private industry, government
agencies, universities, and other groups and organizations.
A small sample of these linkages appears in Appendix 6.
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