ARCHIVAL WEBSITE
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Aquanews
Lockhart Thesis Analyzes Kenyan Fish Farmers’ Perceptions
Malkia Lockhart, profiled in the Summer 1998 issue of Aquanews, successfully defended her thesis on 30 August 1999 and received a Master of Science in Sociology in the Interdepartmental Graduate Program from Auburn University. Her major professor, Joe Molnar, is currently working on CRSP Adoption/Diffusion research activities in Honduras and Peru.
FARMERS PERCEPTIONS OF CONSTRAINTS ON AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL KENYA:MARKET, HOUSEHOLD, AND RESOURCE CONSIDERATIONS
(abstract of Malkia Lockhart’s MS thesis)

The USAID sponsored Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program has conducted studies establishing baseline data on physical, chemical and biological processes as they relate to fish growth. The Sagana, Kenya research site (the fifth PD/A CRSP site) focuses on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as an aquaculture enterprise with high potential to augment the array of alternatives available to local farmers. Kenya is the fifth site following research in Honduras, the Philippines, Thailand, and Rwanda. Tilapia culture is a relatively new enterprise in the dry, highland areas of Kenya’s Central Province, compared to the wet jungles of Western Kenya and the Lake Victoria area. The purpose of this study is to examine fish farmer experiences of market, household, and resource constraints as they bear on their perception of the prospect for tilapia culture in Kenya. Data were obtained from interviews with 51 active Kenyan fish farmers from five districts in Central Province during winter 1998. Tilapia farmers were identified through referrals from Kenyan Fisheries Department personnel, knowledgeable local individuals and fish farmers who knew of neighbors raising tilapia. The results profile farmer perceptions of constraints on aquacultural development and how these considerations bear on expectations for success of the enterprise. Results show that age and resource proximity are significant variables in farmers perceptions of market, household, resource constraints and their commitment to sustained participation in the enterprise. Extension contact was the strongest source of enterprise commitment. Extension agents may provide information and technical assistance to the farmers, while at the same time reinforcing the farmers’ interest in continuing the enterprise. Fish farming can provide protein, calories, income, and employment, but certain conditions must be present for aquaculture to reach its potential in Kenya and in other parts of rural Africa. Markets must provide fingerlings, seeds stock and opportunities to realize income. Households must have the knowledge and technical support necessary to manage the enterprise. Resources, primarily water and land, are baseline conditions enabling the sustained practice of fish culture.

500 Years of Aquaculture in Hawaii
by Kris McElwee
reliable, and sustainable. Freshwater aquaculture may have developed fortuitously by migration of fish into irrigation channels; taro fields were stocked with freshwater-tolerant oceanic species such as mullet along with one of the few Hawaiian freshwater species, the goby. Closer to the ocean, brackish- to saltwater ponds
C ommunities, school groups, and researchers on a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean are looking to the past for clues to their cultural heritage and effective natural resource management. In spite of
regulatory obstacles, several projects are trying to revitalize fishponds built and used by ancient Hawaiians.

The earliest true aquaculture in Oceania was practiced on the islands of Hawaii, at least 600 years ago. Extensive fish farming in fresh, brackish, and salt water was an important component of the social and agricultural structure of the islands. Although yields were relatively low, the technologies were simple,

were set off from the sea by walls of massive stones and coral. Some of these saltwater ponds functioned like the fish traps common on other Pacific islands.

Several modern principles of natural resource management are exemplified by the indigenous aquaculture practices of ancient Hawaii. For example, religious beliefs mandated that no animal, human, or domestic wastes be added to fishponds. This may have limited productivity, but

Ancient fish pond at City of Refuge on the Big Island of Hawaii